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Uusimaa

Crash of a Cessna 208B Super Cargomaster in Helsinki

Date & Time: Jan 31, 2005 at 1700 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SE-KYH
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Helsinki-Örebro
MSN:
208B-0817
YOM:
2000
Flight number:
Helsinki – Örebro
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
3886
Captain / Total hours on type:
3657.00
Aircraft flight hours:
6126
Circumstances:
The aircraft landed at Helsinki–Vantaa airport at around 02:47 on Monday, 31.1.2005. After landing, the pilot taxied to apron number four in the southeastern corner of the aerodrome and unloaded the cargo from Sweden. After having done that he left the airport and went to a suite the company reserves for the crew to rest before the return leg to Sweden, which was planned for the following afternoon. The pilot has worked for the company for approximately five years. As per standard policy, the company operates the aircraft with a two person crew. On the day in question the co-pilot had taken ill and the pilot had flown alone. The return leg to Sweden was also planned as a one-person crew flight. The following morning the aircraft was refuelled with 420 l of Jet A-1, in accordance with the pilot’s instructions. All in all ca. 725 kg of fuel was reserved for the return leg. According to his account, the pilot checked in for duty at the airport at around 14:30. After arriving, the pilot began to brush the accumulated snow and frozen snow melt off the upper surfaces of the aircraft. He said that there was a great deal of snow and ice on the aircraft. The cargo that was to go to Sweden did not arrive in time for him to fly it to Skavsta, his primary destination. Therefore, he phoned in a change to the flight plan, choosing Örebro instead as his destination. Örebro was a better choice regarding follow-on transport of the freight. The pilot had outdated meteorological information for the return leg and the operational flight plan form was inadequately filed in. The flight plan was inadvertently filed for another tail number. Information which should be included such as date, crew, prevailing upper winds, estimates to different waypoints, fuel calculations and pilot signatures were omitted from the flight plan. The pilot had not left a copy of the operational flight plan for the ground crew. No weight and balance calculation for the flight was to be found in the cockpit. It had been left in the ground handling service’s briefing room but had been correctly calculated. The pilot did not have access to the latest aeronautical information for the return leg. Printouts of aeronautical information for the inbound leg were found in the cockpit of the wreckage. At 16:52:45 the pilot acknowledged on Helsinki Control Tower (TWR) frequency 118.600 MHz that he was taxiing to takeoff position RWY 22L at intersection Y. At 16:54:40 TWR gave him takeoff clearance from that intersection and gave him the wind direction. The pilot later said that he executed a normal takeoff, using 10 degrees of flaps. The aircraft lifted off at the normal speed of 80-90 KT. At 16:56:05 the pilot called TWR on 118.600 MHz saying “TOWER” just once. As per the pilot’s account everything went well until he reached the height of 800-1000 ft (250-300 m) at which point he retracted the trailing edge flaps. Immediately after flap retraction, the pilot lost control of the aircraft, which began turning to the right. The pilot attempted to fly the aircraft to the end section of runway 22R for an emergency landing. Shortly before crashing to the right side of the extension of runway 22L the pilot managed to get the wings level. He lost consciousness in the crash.
Probable cause:
The chain of events can be regarded as having begun when the aeroplane stood overnight on the tarmac, exposed to the weather. Snowfall accumulated on the upper surfaces of the fuselage, wings and stabilizers during the night forming a thick coat of ice and snow as it partly melted during the day and refroze when the ambient temperature dropped towards the evening. The pilot noticed the impurities when he performed a walkaround check. However, he did not order a de-icing. Instead, he tried to remove the ice with a brush. It is only possible to remove dry and loose snow by brushing. In this case the frozen water that had trickled down remained stuck to surfaces. The pilot executed a takeoff with an aircraft whose aerodynamic properties were fundamentally degraded due to impurities. During the initial climb, immediately after flap retraction, airflow separated from the surface of the wing and the pilot did not manage to regain control of the aircraft. The pilot did not recognize the stall for what is was and did not act in the required manner to recover or, then again, it could be that he had not received sufficient training for these kinds of situations. Several factors are considered to have affected the pilot’s actions. He was either ignorant or negligent as to the effect of impurities on the aeroplane’s aerodynamic properties. Furthermore, the pressure of keeping to the schedule during the early preflight briefing activities may have affected his decision, even though a change in the flight plan eliminated the actual rush. It is the impression of the investigation commission that these factors were the principal ones that contributed to the omission of proper deicing. A probable contributing factor, albeit one difficult to verify, could have been the financial aspect. The company may have considered buying deicing services from an external service provider as an additional expense. Investigations showed that the operator in question had ordered aeroplane de-icing at Helsinki–Vantaa airport only once during the previous and ongoing winter season. The company regularly flew to this airport. Processes were in place for pre-flight briefing as well as for freight forwarding. However, the flight schedules with reference to the opening times of the company’s primary destination airport did not allow for long delays in ground operations. This may have partly put pressure on the pilot to complete the other pre-flight activities as soon as possible. As for the flap setting, the pilot’s takeoff technique was not proper for the existing circumstances. Moreover, when the aeroplane stalled, the pilot did not execute any effective corrective action to regain control of the aircraft. These would have been, among other things: having reset the flaps to the position prior to the stall as well as having taken advantage of the engine power reserve. As per his account, the pilot did not utilize all available engine power. Instead, he stuck to the maximum value prescribed for normal operations as specified in the aircraft operations manual. The fact that the said flight was flown, contrary to normal operations with only a one person crew, can be considered a contributing factor.
Final Report:

Crash of a Swearingen SA226T Merlin III in Helsinki: 7 killed

Date & Time: Feb 24, 1989 at 2350 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N26RT
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Southend - Helsinki
MSN:
T-216
YOM:
1971
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
7
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Captain / Total flying hours:
12991
Aircraft flight hours:
4401
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft was completing a night charter flight from Southend to Helsinki, carrying seven passengers and one pilot. On final approach to Helsinki-Vantaa Airport runway 22, the pilot elected to reduce the speed when the aircraft lost altitude, descended below the MDA, struck the ground and came to rest inverted in a snow covered field located about one km short of runway threshold. A passenger was seriously injured while seven other occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
It is believed that the pilot probably encountered difficulties in controlling the altitude and an excessive speed during the final approach procedure. As a result, he retarded engine power by pulling both speed levers backwards. Investigations revealed that the flight idle gate allowing the speed levers to be stopped before being positioned at idle was worn, which allowed the pilot to position both levers to idle position while still on approach. This caused the aircraft to lose speed and altitude and to descend below the minimum descent altitude (MDA) until it struck the ground.
The following contributing factors were reported:
- The pilot did not have sufficient experience on this type of aircraft,
- The pilot's training on such operation was insufficient,
- The accident occurred in demanding instrument flight conditions.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 500 Citation I in Helsinki

Date & Time: Nov 19, 1987
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
OH-CAR
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
500-0144
YOM:
1974
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
4
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
While on a night approach to Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, both engines failed simultaneously. The captain reduced his altitude and attempted an emergency landing in an open field located few km from the airport. The aircraft belly landed in a snow covered field and came to rest, broken in two. All six occupants evacuated the cabin and took refuge in a nearby house before being rescued.
Probable cause:
Double engine failure caused by a fuel exhaustion. It was determined that the crew failed to refuel the aircraft prior to takeoff as they thought the fuel quantity remaining was sufficient for the short flight to Vantaa Airport.

Crash of a Cessna 402B in Helsinki: 3 killed

Date & Time: Jun 16, 1977
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
OH-CFM
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
402B-0215
YOM:
1972
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
3
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Vantaa Airport in Helsinki, the pilot reported engine problems and was cleared to return for an emergency landing. Shortly later, the airplane lost height and crashed in flames near the airport. The aircraft was destroyed and all three occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
An engine failed shortly after takeoff for unknown reasons while the second engine partially lost power.

Crash of a Grumman G-44 Widgeon in Helsinki: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jun 28, 1968
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
OH-GWA
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
1367
YOM:
1944
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Helsinki-Malmi Airport, while in initial climb, the airplane stalled and crashed in a huge explosion. Both crew members were killed.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the total weight of the aircraft was well above the MTOW.

Crash of an Ilyushin II-14P in Helsinki

Date & Time: Dec 3, 1957
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-L1657
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Leningrad – Helsinki
MSN:
1460 010 27
YOM:
1956
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
After touchdown at Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, the airplane encountered difficulties to stop within the remaining distance, overran and came to rest in a ditch with the cockpit destroyed on impact. All passengers were evacuated safely while three crew members in the cockpit were seriously injured. Among the passenger was an employee of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow.

Crash of a Douglas DC-2-200 in Helsinki

Date & Time: Feb 7, 1951
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
DO-3
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
1562
YOM:
1936
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff, while in initial climb, the aircraft stalled and crashed. There were no casualties but the airplane was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Engine failure just after rotation.

Crash of a Junkers JU.52/3mce in Hyvinkää

Date & Time: Oct 31, 1945
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
OH-LAK
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Helsinki – Hyvinkää – Hämeenlinna – Tampere
MSN:
4014
YOM:
1932
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
11
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
On final approach to Hyvinkää Airport, the three engine aircraft hit tree tops and crashed in a wooded area. All 14 occupants were injured and the aircraft was destroyed. At the time of the accident, the visibility was poor due to bad weather conditions and the crew was completed a too low approach.

Crash of a De Havilland DH.86B Express in Helsinki-Malmi

Date & Time: May 2, 1940
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
OH-IPA
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Helsinki – Jyväskylä
MSN:
2353
YOM:
1936
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The pilot, sole aboard, was performing a positioning flight from Malmi Airport to Tikkakoski Airport in Jyväskylä. During the take off run, in unclear circumstances, the four engine aircraft collided with a Finnish Air Force (Suomen Ilmavoimat) Brewster 239 BW-394. Both aircraft were damaged beyond repair while the pilot was injured.
Probable cause:
It is believed the pilot was unaccustomed with this type of aircraft and miscalculated the take-off distance.

Crash of a Fokker F7b/3m in Helsinki

Date & Time: Jan 12, 1938
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SP-AOE
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Warsaw – Helsinki
MSN:
5/6
YOM:
0
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The three engine aircraft was performing a flight for the Polish Government. In unknown circumstances, it crash landed at Helsinki-Malmi Airport and came to rest in a perimeter fence. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair and no one was injured.