Crash of a Beechcraft C90A King Air in Mumbai: 5 killed

Date & Time: Jun 28, 2018 at 1315 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
VT-UPZ
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Juhu - Juhu
MSN:
LJ-1400
YOM:
1995
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Circumstances:
Following technical maintenance, a test flight was scheduled with two engineers and two pilots. The twin engine airplane departed Mumbai-Juhu Airport and the crew completed several manoeuvres over the city before returning. On approach in heavy rain falls, the aircraft went out of control and crashed in flames at the bottom of a building under construction located in the Ghatkopar West district, some 3 km east from Mumbai Intl Airport. The aircraft was completely destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire and all four occupants were killed as well as one person on the ground.

Crash of a Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation in Bombay

Date & Time: Jan 12, 1983
Operator:
Registration:
IN316
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
4666
YOM:
1956
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The undercarriage retracted for unknown reasons while the aircraft was taxiing at Bombay Airport. There were no injuries but the aircraft was written off.

Crash of a Hindustan Aeronautics HAL-748-224-2A near Mumbai: 45 killed

Date & Time: Aug 4, 1979 at 2016 LT
Operator:
Registration:
VT-DXJ
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Pune - Bombay
MSN:
515
YOM:
1968
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
40
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
45
Circumstances:
While approaching Bombay Airport from the southeast by night, the crew encountered technical problems when the airplane struck the slope of Mt Kisoli located 30 km southeast from Bombay Airport. SAR operations were hampered by lack of visibility and heavy rain falls. The wreckage was found few hours later and all 45 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The accident was the consequence of the combination of the following factors:
- Momentary/intermittent loss of electrical contact in G/S system of aircraft which gave the pilot an erroneous impression of the interception of the glide slope,
- Failure of the pilot to discharge his obligations under DOC 4444 by failing to use the glidepath facility only after the Outer Marker and also in descending below 2910 feet without first cross-checking over the Outer Marker,
- Failure of the radar controller to discharge his obligations under DOC 4444 of giving position information to the aircraft from time to time, use of incorrect and/or non-standard phraseology and also failure to inform the aircraft about the loss of radar contact.

Crash of a Convair CV-990-30A-5 near Bombay: 30 killed

Date & Time: May 28, 1968 at 0244 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PK-GJA
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Jakarta – Bombay – Karachi – Cairo – Rome – Amsterdam
MSN:
30-10-3
YOM:
1964
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
14
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
29
Circumstances:
Less than five minutes after a night takeoff from Bombay-Santa Cruz Airport, while climbing, the aircraft entered a nose-down attitude then plunged into the earth and crashed in a huge explosion some 32 km north of the airport. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 29 occupants were killed as well as one person on the ground. Few houses were damaged and few other people were injured.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the loss of control was the consequence of the partial or complete failure of all four engines during the initial climb. Investigations reported that during the stop at Bombay Airport, the wrong type of fuel was transferred into the tanks of the Coronado. Instead of kerosene, ground staff fueled the aircraft with regular benzin.

Crash of a Bristol 175 Britannia 313 in Nicosia: 126 killed

Date & Time: Apr 20, 1967 at 0113 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HB-ITB
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bangkok - Colombo - Bombay - Cairo - Zurich - Basel
MSN:
13232
YOM:
1957
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
10
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
120
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
126
Captain / Total flying hours:
8285
Captain / Total hours on type:
1493.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
9680
Copilot / Total hours on type:
49
Aircraft flight hours:
20632
Aircraft flight cycles:
6780
Circumstances:
The aircraft was on a non-scheduled flight from Bangkok to Base1 with scheduled stops at Colombo, Bombay and Cairo. The aircraft departed Bombay for Cairo on 19 April at 1312 hours GMT, with 11 hours and 10 minutes of fuel endurance and an estimated flight time for Cairo of 9 hours. According to the flight plan time, it was due to arrive in Cairo at 2212 hours. The alternate airport for the above sector was given as Beirut. At 2215 hours the aircraft was heard calling Nicosia but, due to distance and height, two-way communication with Nicosia on VHF could not be established until 2234 hours. In the meantime a message was received from Beirut advising Nicosia that the aircraft had entered the Nicosia FIR and had reported over position Red 18A at 2229 hours. From the Area Control radiotelephony tape recording, it is evident that the actual weather conditions at Nicosia at 2145 hours and 2245 h~.:rs were passed to the aircraft at 2238 hours and 2254 hours respectively. Details of the latter actual weather were passed again to the aircraft at 2300 hours by Approach Control. The aircraft came over the field at 2306 hours and was cleared for a right- hand circuit. At 2310 hours, when over the threshold of runway 32, the aircraft was slightly high and the captain decided to overshoot. He informed the tower and was cleared for a left-hand circuit. He further informed the tower that he would carry out a low circuit. The aircraft was momentarily seen by the controller during its final approach and the glare of its landing lights was visible through the low cloud when it made a pass over the runway in use and disappeared from view over the upwind end of the runway in the low cloud to the north-west. On his second attempt to land and while executing a low circuit, the aircraft collided with the ground at 0113LT, 3,5 km short of runway threshold. A crew member and three passengers were seriously injured while 126 other occupants were killed. The aircraft was totally destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire.
Probable cause:
The accident resulted from an attempt to make an approach at a height too low to clear rising ground. The following findings were reported:
- The reason why Captain Muller chose to land at Nicosia instead of Beirut which was on his flight plan and where the weather conditions were much better than Nicosia cannot be determined,
- From date available concerning Capt. H.M. Day, it is obvious that he must be considered as a pilot under training in view of his limited hours on Britannias and as neither his Swiss nor his British licence was valid,
- Under these conditions the flight time limitations for two pilots for turboprop aircraft had been exceeded by 2 hours and 47 minutes at the time of the accident. Furthermore this excess would be augmented to 4 hours and 17 minutes, taking into consideration the fact that the company considered the if hour preceding the scheduled take-off time on duty for flight time limitation purposes,
- From the tape recordings it has been possible to establish,with the help of Globeair technical personnel who could recognize the speech recorded,the fact that during the flight of HB-ITB from Cairo to Nicosia, Capt. Muller and F/O Hippemeyer were in the flight deck,
- From the data made available it can be said that the aircraft was airworthy and properly maintained and correctly loaded in Bombay for the flight,
- No evidence of pre-crash failure was discovered and the radiotelephony contact with the tower from initial contact and up to the time of the crash was normal,
- After overshoot procedures the pilot decided to make a visual low circuit,
- The company's weather minima for circling at Nicosia are given as 1 000 ft cloud base and 4 km visibility. Using the Nicosia NDB for runway 27, the minima are 500 ft cloud base and 2.4 km visibility.
Final Report:

Crash of a Sud-Aviation SE-210 Caravelle VI-N in Bombay: 4 killed

Date & Time: Sep 4, 1966
Operator:
Registration:
VT-DSB
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Bombay - Bombay
MSN:
134
YOM:
1964
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
4
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a local training flight at Bombay-Santa Cruz Airport. On final approach, while at an altitude of 800 feet, the crew voluntarily shut down an engine to simulate a failure when the airplane struck a hill and crashed. All four crew members were killed.

Crash of a De Havilland DH.106 Comet 4C off Mumbai: 63 killed

Date & Time: Jul 28, 1963 at 0150 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SU-ALD
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Tokyo – Hong Kong – Bangkok – Bombay – Bahreïn – Cairo
MSN:
6441
YOM:
1960
Flight number:
MS869
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
55
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
63
Captain / Total flying hours:
14841
Captain / Total hours on type:
1473.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
5463
Copilot / Total hours on type:
475
Circumstances:
Flight 869 was a scheduled international flight from Tokyo, Japan to Cairo, United Arab Republic via Hong Kong, Bangkok, Bombay and Bahrain. A crew change was effected at Bangkok. Based on the tape recordings of messages exchanged between the aircraft and Santa Cruz approach and radar control, the flight was reconstructed. It was uneventful until 2016 hours GMT when it reported arriving over the Santa Cruz VOR at 7 000 ft. It was cleared to descend to 4 000 ft over the VOR and was requested to report what type of approach would be carried out for landing on runway 09. The aircraft reported it would follow the ILS back beam procedure. It was advised by Santa Cruz approach that the back beam of the ILS was not flyable but that it could home on the 270° radial of the VOR. The aircraft agreed to do a VOR letdown for runway 09, and shortly thereafter reported it was leaving 7 000 ft outbound over the sea on the 272° radial of the VOR. At 2018 Santa Cruz radar, which was monitoring the flight, warned it that if it flew more than 6 or 7 miles west of the field it would run into very heavy turbulence. Shortly thereafter the flight requested permission to make a left-hand procedure turn instead of the normal right-hand turn. This was granted. At 2019 the flight commenced the procedure turn inbound. Santa Cruz radar advised the flight that it was then 6 miles west-northwest of the field. Flight 869 acknowledged this message and was not heard from again. During the turn in severe turbulence and heavy rain the pilot lost control of the aircraft. It was found later on that the air- craft had crashed into the sea 9 NM west of Madh Island at approximately 2020 hours.
Probable cause:
The committee was faced with difficulties during the course of the investigation due to the fact that neither the exact location of the wreckage could be fixed no the wreckage salvaged. Moreover, the accident occurred suddenly with no airborne emergency reported and late at night over the sea in limited visibility. There were no eyewitnesses. However, in the presence of the facts available, it can be concluded that the accident was probably due to loss of control while turning in severe turbulence and heavy rain.
Final Report:

Crash of a Douglas DC-8-43 near Junnar: 94 killed

Date & Time: Jul 7, 1962 at 0010 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
I-DIWD
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Sydney – Darwin – Singapore – Bangkok – Bombay – Karachi – Tehran – Rome
MSN:
45631
YOM:
1962
Flight number:
AZ771
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
85
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
94
Captain / Total flying hours:
13700
Captain / Total hours on type:
1396.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
3480
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1672
Aircraft flight hours:
964
Circumstances:
The crew was preparing to land at Bombay-Santa Cruz Airport runway 27 and was cleared to descend to 4,000 feet. After several errors, the pilot-in-command started the descent prematurely and while at an altitude of 3,600 feet, the airplane struck the slope of Mt Davandyachi (1,080 m high) located about eight km north of Junnar. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 94 occupants were killed. At the time of the accident, the airplane was off course by 9 km and its altitude was too low.
Probable cause:
The accident was attributed to a navigation error which led the pilot to believe that he was nearer his destination than he actually was and, therefore, caused him to make a premature descent in instrument conditions for a straight-in approach to land at night. The aircraft consequently, crashed into high terrain. Contributing causes were:
- Failure on the part of the pilot to make use of the navigational facilities available in order to ascertain the correct position of the aircraft,
- Infringement of the prescribed minimum safe altitude,
- Unfamiliarity of the pilot with the terrain on the route.
Final Report:

Crash of a Douglas C-54A-15-DC Skymaster in Haveri

Date & Time: May 7, 1962 at 1655 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
VT-DIC
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bangalore – Bombay
MSN:
10376
YOM:
1944
Flight number:
IC106
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
30
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
12777
Captain / Total hours on type:
1806.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
13499
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2896
Circumstances:
Flight 106 departed from HAL Airport, Bangalore for Bombay at 1555LT on a scheduled domestic flight with 6 crew and 30 passengers on board. After a normal takeoff and climb, the aircraft was cruising at flight level 85 with the engines operating at 29" manifold pressure and 2050 rpm. BMEP gauges were not fitted. At 16:30 hours the flight reported its position 100 miles out from Bangalore and estimated Bombay FIR boundary at 17:00. The flight was uneventful up to about 16:50 when the pilot heard a loud "thud" which he believed to be an engine misfiring. This was followed by the aircraft losing height rapidly. The auto pilot was disengaged and the aircraft was trimmed for manual flight. In order to maintain height the pilot applied climb power, and then METO power by moving the pitch and throttle controls forward, and although the manifold pressure increased first to 35" and then to 40", the engine speed remained constant at 2050 rpm and the aircraft continued to lose height at a descent rate of 1500 feet per minute. Cylinder head temperatures were not apparently noted. The pilot eventually made a wheels-up landing in a ploughed field at an elevation of 1900 feet. All 36 occupants were evacuated safely while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The accident was attributed to the failure of the crew to diagnose complete loss of power caused by an inadvertent movement of the master ignition switch to the "off" position during flight.
Final Report:

Crash of a Douglas C-47 near Pune: 4 killed

Date & Time: May 7, 1961
Operator:
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Hyderabad – Bombay
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
4
Circumstances:
While cruising by night on a flight from Hyderabad to Bombay, the airplane crashed in unknown circumstances in the region of Pune, killing all four crew members.