Region

Crash of a Beechcraft 350 Super King Air in Kaduna: 11 killed

Date & Time: May 21, 2021 at 1800 LT
Operator:
Registration:
NAF203
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
FL-891
YOM:
2013
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
7
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
11
Circumstances:
On final approach to Kaduna Airport in poor weather conditions, the twin engine aircraft crashed, bursting into flames. The aircraft was totally destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire. All 11 occupants were killed, among them General Ibrahim Attahiru, Chief of Staff of the Nigerian Army. He was returning to Kaduna with a delegation of six other Army officers, among them three Brigadier General.
Crew:
F/Lt T. Asaniyi,
F/Lt A. Olufade,
Sgt Adesina,
Acm Oyedepo.
Passengers:
Lt General Ibrahim Attahiru,
Br/Gen M. Abdulkadir,
Br/Gen Olayinka,
Br/Gen Kuliya,
Maj Lawal Hayat,
Maj Hamza,
Sgt Umar.

Crash of a Beechcraft 350 Super King Air in Abuja: 7 killed

Date & Time: Feb 21, 2021 at 1148 LT
Operator:
Registration:
NAF201
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Abuja - Minna
MSN:
FL-585
YOM:
2008
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Circumstances:
After takeoff from Abuja-Nnamdi Azikiwe Airport, while climbing, the crew informed ATC about an engine failure and was cleared for an immediate return. On final approach to runway 22, the aircraft went out of control and crashed in an open field, bursting into flames. The aircraft was destroyed and all 7 occupants were killed, among them two pilots, four ATOS specialists (Airborne Tactical Observation System) and one technician.

Crash of a Dornier DO228-212 in Kaduna: 7 killed

Date & Time: Aug 29, 2015 at 0647 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
NAF030
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Kaduna – Abuja
MSN:
8219
YOM:
1993
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Circumstances:
Shortly after take off from the Kaduna Military Airfield, while climbing, the aircraft crashed in flames into a house at Ribadu Cantonment. All seven occupants (two pilots, two engineers and three passengers) were killed.

Crash of a Boeing 747-281BSF in Abuja

Date & Time: Dec 4, 2013 at 2119 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Jeddah - Abuja
MSN:
23698/667
YOM:
1986
Flight number:
SV6814
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
23000
Captain / Total hours on type:
13000.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
5731
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1296
Aircraft flight hours:
94330
Aircraft flight cycles:
15255
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful cargo flight from Jeddah, the crew completed the approach and landing procedures on runway 04 at Abuja-Nnamdi Azikiwe Airport. During the landing roll, the aircraft overran the displaced threshold then veered to the right and veered off runway. While contacting a grassy area, the aircraft collided with several parked excavator equipment and trucks. The aircraft came to a halt and was severely damaged to both wings and engines. All six occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The accident resulted as the crew was not updated on the information available on the reduced runway length.
The following contributing factors were identified:
1. Lack of briefing by Saudia dispatcher during pre-flight.
2. Runway status was missing from Abuja ATIS information.
3. Ineffective communication between crew and ATC on short finals.
4. The runway markings and lighting not depicting the displaced threshold.
5. The entire runway lighting was ON beyond the displaced threshold.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-120ER Brasília in Lagos: 16 killed

Date & Time: Oct 3, 2013 at 0932 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BJY
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos - Akure
MSN:
120-174
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
SCD361
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
13
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
16
Aircraft flight hours:
27362
Aircraft flight cycles:
34609
Circumstances:
The crew discussed some concerns about the aircraft prior to departure but at this time we are not prepared to elaborate on those concerns as there remains a lot of work to complete on the CVR analysis in order to determine the specific nature of the crew’s concerns. Associated 361 was cleared for take-off on runway one eight left at Lagos international airport. The wind was calm and weather is not considered a factor in this accident. Approximately 4 seconds after engine power was advanced to commence the take-off roll, the crew received an automated warning from the onboard computer voice which consisted of three chimes followed by “Take-off Flaps…Take-off Flaps”. This is a configuration warning that suggests that the flaps were not in the correct position for take-off and there is some evidence that the crew may have chosen not to use flaps for the take-off. The warning did not appear to come as any surprise to the crew and they continued normally with the take-off. This warning continues throughout the take-off roll. As we are in the process of verifying the accuracy of the flight data, we have not yet been able to confirm the actual flap setting however we expect to determine this in the fullness of time. It was determined from the CVR that the pilot flying was the Captain and the pilot monitoring and assisting was the First Officer. The ‘set power‘ call was made by the Captain and the ‘power is set’ call was confirmed by the First Officer as expected in normal operations. Approximately 3 seconds after the ‘power is set’ call, the First Officer noted that the aircraft was moving slowly. Approximately 7 seconds after the ‘power is set’ call, the internal Aircraft Voice warning system could be heard stating ‘Take off Flaps, Auto Feather’. Auto feather refers to the pitch of the propeller blades. In the feather position, the propeller does not produce any thrust. The FDR contains several engine related parameters which the AIB is studying. At this time, we can state that the Right engine appears to be producing considerably less thrust than the Left engine. The left engine appeared to be working normally. The aircraft automated voice continued to repeat ‘Take-off Flaps, Auto Feather’. The physical examination of the wreckage revealed that the right engine propeller was in the feather position and the engine fire handle was pulled/activated. The standard ‘eighty knots’ call was made by the First Officer. The first evidence that the crew indicated that there was a problem with the take-off roll was immediately following the ‘eighty knots’ call. The First Officer asked if the take- off should be aborted approximately 12 seconds after the ‘eighty knots’ callout. Our investigation team estimates the airspeed to be approximately 95 knots. Airspeed was one of the parameters that, while working in the cockpit, appeared not to be working on the Flight Data Recorder. We were able to estimate the speed based on the radar data that we synchronized to the FDR and CVR but it is very approximate because of this. In response to the First Officer’s question to abort, the Captain indicated that they should continue and they continued the take-off roll. The crew did not make a ‘V1’ call or a Vr’ call. V1 is the speed at which a decision to abort or continue a take-off is made. Vr is the speed at which it is planned to rotate the aircraft. Normally the non-flying pilot calls both the V1 and the Vr speeds. When Vr is called the flying pilot pulls back on the control column and the aircraft is rotated (pitched up) to climb away from the runway. During the rotation, the First Officer stated ‘gently’, which we believe reflects concern that the aircraft is not performing normally and therefore needs to be rotated very gently so as not to aerodynamically stall the aircraft. The First Officer indicated that the aircraft was not climbing and advised the Captain who was flying not to stall the aircraft. Higher climb angles can cause an aerodynamic stall. If the aircraft is not producing enough overall thrust, it is difficult or impossible to climb without the risk of an aerodynamic stall. Immediately after lift-off, the aircraft slowly veered off the runway heading to the right and was not climbing properly. This aircraft behavior appears to have resulted in the Air Traffic Controller asking Flight 361 if operation was normal. Flight 361 never responded. Less than 10 seconds after rotation of the aircraft to climb away from the runway, the stall warning sounded in the cockpit and continued to the end of the recording. The flight data shows characteristics consistent with an aerodynamic stall. 31 seconds after the stall warning was heard, the aircraft impacted the ground in a nose down near 90° right bank.
Probable cause:
The accident was the consequence of the decision of the crew to continue the take-off despite the abnormal No. 2 Propeller rpm indication and a low altitude stall as a result of low thrust at start of roll for take-off from No. 2 Engine caused by an undetermined malfunction of the propeller control unit.
The following contributing factors were identified:
- The aircraft was rotated before attaining V1.
- The decision to continue the take-off with flap configuration warning and auto- feather warning at low speed.
- Poor professional conduct of the flight crew.
- Inadequate application of Crew Resource Management (CRM) principles.
- Poor company culture.
- Inadequate regulatory oversight.

Crash of a Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in Yola

Date & Time: Oct 25, 2012 at 1830 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BMJ
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Jalingo – Yola
MSN:
208B-2098
YOM:
2009
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
999
Circumstances:
On the 25th of October, 2012 at 17: 48 h, a Cessna Caravan 208B, 5N-BMJ, departed Jalingo for Yola on a Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight plan with four Persons-On-Board (one crew and three passengers). At 18:00 h, the Airport Manager stationed at Jalingo by Taraba State Government, called Yola Control Tower (CT) by phone to advise that the aircraft had departed Jalingo for Yola. At 18:25 h the pilot reported field in sight. CT then advised him to “continue approach and report final, wind calm” and the pilot acknowledged “will continue approach, to report final”. At 18:27 h CT had the aircraft in sight and advised the pilot to report “final, wind calm”, the pilot acknowledged. At 18:30 h, CT lost visual contact with 5N-BMJ and tried to raise her on radio but there was no response. At 18:37 h, information was received from witnesses, regarding a possible plane crash at Yola-Numan road close to Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) depot. This information was subsequently passed to the fire watch room. Rescue team and other security personnel were mobilized to the location of the crash. However, before the arrival of the rescue team from the airport, the locals had rescued the occupants from the wreckage. The occupants were subsequently taken to Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Yola for medical treatment. The accident occurred at dusk. The aircraft was destroyed.
Probable cause:
The Bureau could not conclusively determine the cause of this accident; however, the investigation identified the following factors:
- The pilot was not certified, qualified and not competent to fly the aircraft.
- The decision of the pilot to operate a VFR flight after sunset.
- Inadequate oversight by the Regulatory Authority.
Final Report:

Crash of a McDonnell Douglas MD-83 in Lagos: 159 killed

Date & Time: Jun 3, 2012 at 1545 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-RAM
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Abuja - Lagos
MSN:
53019/1783
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
DAV992
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
147
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
159
Captain / Total flying hours:
18116
Captain / Total hours on type:
7466.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1143
Copilot / Total hours on type:
808
Aircraft flight hours:
60850
Aircraft flight cycles:
35220
Circumstances:
On 3rd June, 2012 at about 1545:00hrs, 5N-RAM, a Boeing MD-83, a domestic scheduled commercial flight, operated by Dana Airlines (Nig.) Limited as flight 0992 (DANACO 0992), crashed into a densely populated area of Iju-Ishaga, a suburb of Lagos, following engine number 1 loss of power seventeen minutes into the flight and engine number 2 loss of power while on final approach to Murtala Muhammed Airport Lagos, Nigeria. Visual Meteorological Conditions prevailed at the time and the airplane was on an instrument flight plan. All 153 persons onboard the airplane, including the six crew were fatally injured. There were also six confirmed ground fatalities. The airplane was destroyed. There was post impact fire. The flight originated at Abuja (ABV) and the destination was Lagos (LOS). The airplane was on the fourth flight segment of the day, consisting of two round-trips between Lagos and Abuja. The accident occurred during the return leg of the second trip. DANACO 0992 was on final approach to runway 18R at LOS when the crew declared a Mayday call “Dual Engine Failure – negative response from the throttles.” According to records, the flight arrived ABV as Dana Air flight 0993 at about 1350:00hrs and routine turn-around activities were carried out. DANACO 0992 initiated engine start up at 1436:00hrs. Abuja Control Tower cleared the aircraft to taxi to the holding point of runway 04. En-route ATC clearance was passed on to DANACO 0992 on approaching holding point of runway 04. According to the ATC ground recorder transcript, the aircraft was cleared to line-up on runway 04 and wait, but the crew requested for some time before lining-up. DANACO 0992 was airborne at 1458:00hrs after reporting a fuel endurance of 3 hours 30 minutes. The aircraft made contact with Lagos Area Control Centre at 1518:00hrs and reported 1545:00hrs as the estimated time of arrival at LOS at cruising altitude of 26,000 ft. The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) retained about 30 minutes 53 seconds of the flight and started recording at 1513:44hrs by which time the Captain and First Officer (F/O) were in a discussion of a non-normal condition regarding the correlation between the engine throttle setting and an engine power indication. However, they did not voice concerns then that the condition would affect the continuation of the flight. The flight crew continued to monitor the condition and became increasingly concerned as the flight transitioned through the initial descent from cruise altitude at 1522:00hrs and the subsequent approach phase. DANACO 0992 reported passing 18,100ft and 7,700ft, at 1530:00hrs and 1540:00hrs respectively. After receiving radar vectors in heading and altitude from the Controller, the aircraft was issued the final heading to intercept the final approach course for runway 18R. According to CVR transcript, at 1527:30hrs the F/O advised the Captain to use runway 18R for landing and the request was made at 1531:49hrs and subsequently approved by the Radar Controller. The crew accordingly changed the decision height to correspond with runway 18R. At 1531:12hrs, the crew confirmed that there was no throttle response on the left engine and subsequently the Captain took over control as Pilot Flying (PF) at 1531:27hrs. The flight was however continued towards Lagos with no declaration of any distress message. With the confirmation of throttle response on the right engine, the engine anti-ice, ignition and bleed-air were all switched off. At 1532:05hrs, the crew observed the loss of thrust in No.1 Engine of the aircraft. During the period between 1537:00hrs and 1541:00hrs, the flight crew engaged in prelanding tasks including deployment of the slats, and extension of the flaps and landing gears. At 1541:46hrs the First Officer inquired, "both engines coming up?" and the Captain replied “negative” at 1541:48hrs. The flight crew subsequently discussed and agreed to declare an emergency. At 1542:10hrs, DANACO 0992 radioed an emergency distress call indicating "dual engine failure . . . negative response from throttle." At 1542:35hrs, the flight crew lowered the flaps further and continued with the approach and discussed landing alternatively on runway 18L. At 1542:45hrs, the Captain reported the runway in sight and instructed the F/O to retract the flaps and four seconds later to retract the landing gears. At 1543:27hrs, the Captain informed the F/O, "we just lost everything, we lost an engine. I lost both engines". During the next 25 seconds until the end of the CVR recording, the flight crew attempted to recover engine power without reference to any Checklist. The airplane crashed into a densely populated residential area about 5.8 miles north of LOS. The airplane wreckage was approximately on the extended centreline of runway 18R, with the main wreckage concentrated at N 06o 40.310’ E 003o 18.837' coordinates, with elevation of 177ft. During the impact sequence, the airplane struck an uncompleted building, two trees and three other buildings. The wreckage was confined in a small area, with the separated tail section and engines located at the beginning of the debris trail. The airplane was mostly consumed by post crash fire. The tail section, both engines and portions of both wings representing only about 15% of the airplane, were recovered from the accident site for further examination.
Probable cause:
Probable Causal Factors:
1. Engine number 1 lost power seventeen minutes into the flight, and thereafter on final approach, Engine number 2 lost power and failed to respond to throttle movement on demand for increased power to sustain the aircraft in its flight configuration.
2. The inappropriate omission of the use of the Checklist, and the crew’s inability to appreciate the severity of the power-related problem, and their subsequent failure to land at the nearest suitable airfield.
3. Lack of situation awareness, inappropriate decision making, and poor airmanship.

Tear down of the engines showed that the no.1 engine was overhauled in the U.S in August 2011 and was not in compliance with Service Bulletin SB 6452. Both engines had primary and secondary fuel manifold assemblies fractured, cracked, bent, twisted or pinched which led to fuel leaks, fuel discharge to bypass duct, loss of engine thrust and obvious failure of engine responding to
throttle movement. This condition was similar to the no.1 engine of a different Dana Air MD-80, 5N-SAI, that was involved in an incident in October 2013 when the aircraft returned to the departure airport with the engine not responding th throttle movements. This engine also was not in compliance with Service Bulletin SB 6452. This bulletin was issued in 2003 and called for the installation of new secondary fuel manifold assemblies, incorporating tubes fabricated from new material which has a fatigue life that was approximately 2 times greater than the previous tube material.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 560XL Citation XLS in Port Harcourt

Date & Time: Jul 14, 2011 at 1953 LT
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BMM
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos – Port Harcourt
MSN:
560-5830
YOM:
2008
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
4
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
11751
Captain / Total hours on type:
684.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
13302
Copilot / Total hours on type:
612
Aircraft flight hours:
982
Circumstances:
5N-BMM departed Lagos at 1856 hrs for Port Harcourt on an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and estimated Port Harcourt at 1940 hrs. The aircraft was cleared to maintain FL330. The aircraft’s first contact with Port Harcourt was at 1914 hrs. The pilot reported maintaining FL330 with six souls onboard, four hours fuel endurance and estimating POT VOR at 1940hrs. The aircraft was cleared to POT, to maintain FL330 with no delay expected for ILS Approach Runway 21, QNH 1011 and to report when released by Lagos. At 1921 hrs the pilot reported 100 NM to POT and requested for descent. The aircraft was cleared to descend to FL150. At 1927 hrs the pilot requested for further descent and was cleared to 3,300 feet on QNH 1011 but the pilot acknowledged 3500 feet. At 1931 hrs the aircraft was re-cleared to FL090 initially due to departing traffic on Runway 03. At 1934 hrs 5N-BMM reported maintaining FL090 and was re-cleared to FL050. The aircraft was re-cleared to 2,000 feet on QNH 1011 at 1936 hrs and cleared for the straight-in ILS Approach Runway 21 and to report on the localizer. At 1947 hrs the pilot reported final for Runway 21 and was asked to contact Tower on 119.2 and the Tower asked 5N-BMM to report on glide slope Runway 21. At 1950 hrs the Tower asked 5N-BMM to confirm on the glide slope and the crew confirmed “Charlie, we have three miles to run”. The Tower cleared 5N-BMM to land with surface wind calm but to exercise caution since the Runway surface was wet and 5N-BMM responded “wind calm”. At 1952:26 hrs the auto voice callout "minimums minimums” alerted the crew. At 1952:40 hrs the pilot flying (PF) said "I am not on the centerline". At 1952:48 hrs he said "I can't see down". At 1952:55 hrs the pilot monitoring (PM) said to the pilot flying; " I am telling you to go down" and the pilot flying said " I will go down", five seconds later the aircraft crashed. The crew exited the aircraft without accomplishing the Emergency Evacuation Checklist and therefore left the right engine running for about 28 minutes after the crash. The Fire Service eventually used their water hose to shutdown the running engine. At 19:54 hrs the Tower called 5N-BMM to pass on the landing time as 19:53 hrs, but no response from 5N-BMM. There was no indication that the aircraft was taxing on the Runway because it was dark and no light was visible hence the need to alert the Fire personnel. The watch room was asked to give the Tower information, which they could not give since they do not have a two – way contact with the Fire trucks. The Tower could not raise the Fire truck since there was no two - way communication between them; however, the Fire truck was later cleared to proceed to the Runway as the Tower could not ascertain the position of the aircraft. The aircraft was actually turned 90° because of the big culvert that held the right wing and made the aircraft spin and turned 90o facing the runway, two meters from the active runway, the culvert was uprooted due to the aircraft impact forces. The wheel broke off because of the gully that runs parallel to the runway.
Probable cause:
The decision of the pilot to continue the approach without the required visual references.
Contributory Factors:
- Poor crew coordination (CRM),
- Pairing two captains together,
- The weather was marginal.
Final Report:

Crash of a Beechcraft C90 King Air in Kaduna: 2 killed

Date & Time: May 24, 2011 at 1154 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N364UZ
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Old Kaduna - Old Kaduna
MSN:
LJ-805
YOM:
1979
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Aircraft flight hours:
9665
Circumstances:
On 24th May, 2011 at 11:54 h, a Beechcraft C90 aircraft with nationality and registration marks N364UZ, operated by Shoreline Energy International Limited (SEIL), departed Old Kaduna (Military) airport on a test flight with a pilot and another person onboard with three hours fuel endurance. The test flight was on a visual flight rules (VFR) flight plan. According to an eye witness, the aircraft sound was unusual and the aircraft seemed not to be gaining altitude after takeoff. Another eye witness (a local farmer), stated that he saw the aircraft moving up and down with increasing and decreasing engine sound. Thereafter, the aircraft impacted a mango tree, turned and crashed. The local farmer further stated that he and some military personnel tried all they could to rescue the occupants inside the aircraft but their efforts were not successful. At 11:59 h, the aircraft crashed on a farm-land 878 meters short of RWY 23 (military) and engulfed into flames. The two occupants were fatally injured. Dornier Aviation Nigeria AIEP (DANA) and Nigerian Air Force (NAF) fire-fighting personnel were dispatched immediately. There was no direct access between the runway and the accident site, which delayed the fire trucks from reaching the aircraft at accident site on time. The accident occurred in day light, in visual meteorological conditions (VMC).
Probable cause:
Causal Factor:
Inability of the pilot to control the aircraft to landing due to inadequate power to enable the pilot maintain the appropriate approach profile (height, speed and glide path) to cover the required distance to threshold.
Contributory factors:
1. Non-adherence to approved storage procedure.
2. Non-adherence to approved return from storage procedure.
3. Inadequate regulatory oversight by the authority on flight operation and maintenance of foreign registered aircraft in Nigeria.
Final Report:

Crash of an Aeritalia G.222 in Port Harcourt

Date & Time: Mar 12, 2010
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
NAF950
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Abuja - Port Harcourt
MSN:
4070
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
47
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
After landing at Port Harcourt Airport, the aircraft skidded then veered off runway and came to rest. All 52 occupants were rescued, among them 10 were slightly injured. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. All passengers were members of the intervention group taking part to a disaster response operation.