Country
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Lagos

Crash of an Embraer EMB-120ER Brasília in Lagos: 16 killed

Date & Time: Oct 3, 2013 at 0932 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BJY
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos - Akure
MSN:
120174
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
SCD361
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
13
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
16
Circumstances:
The crew discussed some concerns about the aircraft prior to departure but at this time we are not prepared to elaborate on those concerns as there remains a lot of work to complete on the CVR analysis in order to determine the specific nature of the crew’s concerns. Associated 361 was cleared for take-off on runway one eight left at Lagos international airport. The wind was calm and weather is not considered a factor in this accident. Approximately 4 seconds after engine power was advanced to commence the take-off roll, the crew received an automated warning from the onboard computer voice which consisted of three chimes followed by “Take-off Flaps…Take-off Flaps”. This is a configuration warning that suggests that the flaps were not in the correct position for take-off and there is some evidence that the crew may have chosen not to use flaps for the take-off. The warning did not appear to come as any surprise to the crew and they continued normally with the take-off. This warning continues throughout the take-off roll. As we are in the process of verifying the accuracy of the flight data, we have not yet been able to confirm the actual flap setting however we expect to determine this in the fullness of time. It was determined from the CVR that the pilot flying was the Captain and the pilot monitoring and assisting was the First Officer. The ‘set power‘ call was made by the Captain and the ‘power is set’ call was confirmed by the First Officer as expected in normal operations. Approximately 3 seconds after the ‘power is set’ call, the First Officer noted that the aircraft was moving slowly. Approximately 7 seconds after the ‘power is set’ call, the internal Aircraft Voice warning system could be heard stating ‘Take off Flaps, Auto Feather’. Auto feather refers to the pitch of the propeller blades. In the feather position, the propeller does not produce any thrust. The FDR contains several engine related parameters which the AIB is studying. At this time, we can state that the Right engine appears to be producing considerably less thrust than the Left engine. The left engine appeared to be working normally. The aircraft automated voice continued to repeat ‘Take-off Flaps, Auto Feather’. The physical examination of the wreckage revealed that the right engine propeller was in the feather position and the engine fire handle was pulled/activated. The standard ‘eighty knots’ call was made by the First Officer. The first evidence that the crew indicated that there was a problem with the take-off roll was immediately following the ‘eighty knots’ call. The First Officer asked if the take- off should be aborted approximately 12 seconds after the ‘eighty knots’ callout. Our investigation team estimates the airspeed to be approximately 95 knots. Airspeed was one of the parameters that, while working in the cockpit, appeared not to be working on the Flight Data Recorder. We were able to estimate the speed based on the radar data that we synchronized to the FDR and CVR but it is very approximate because of this. In response to the First Officer’s question to abort, the Captain indicated that they should continue and they continued the take-off roll. The crew did not make a ‘V1’ call or a Vr’ call. V1 is the speed at which a decision to abort or continue a take-off is made. Vr is the speed at which it is planned to rotate the aircraft. Normally the non-flying pilot calls both the V1 and the Vr speeds. When Vr is called the flying pilot pulls back on the control column and the aircraft is rotated (pitched up) to climb away from the runway. During the rotation, the First Officer stated ‘gently’, which we believe reflects concern that the aircraft is not performing normally and therefore needs to be rotated very gently so as not to aerodynamically stall the aircraft. The First Officer indicated that the aircraft was not climbing and advised the Captain who was flying not to stall the aircraft. Higher climb angles can cause an aerodynamic stall. If the aircraft is not producing enough overall thrust, it is difficult or impossible to climb without the risk of an aerodynamic stall. Immediately after lift-off, the aircraft slowly veered off the runway heading to the right and was not climbing properly. This aircraft behavior appears to have resulted in the Air Traffic Controller asking Flight 361 if operation was normal. Flight 361 never responded. Less than 10 seconds after rotation of the aircraft to climb away from the runway, the stall warning sounded in the cockpit and continued to the end of therecording. The flight data shows characteristics consistent with an aerodynamic stall. 31 seconds after the stall warning was heard, the aircraft impacted the ground in a nose down near 90 degree right bank.

The investigation is focusing on the following:
1) Mechanical and electronic engine control issues related to the Right engine and Right engine propeller systems.
2) Aural warnings related to auto-feather and the flap settings required fortakeoff.
3) Take-off configuration issues with respect to flap settings.
4) Crew decision making and training with respect to proceeding with the flight despite concerns regarding the aircraft’s suitability for flight.
5) When and how the number 2 engine fire handle was pulled.
6) Standard operating procedures with respect to continuing the take-off roll despite continuous automated voice warnings of both ‘take-off flaps’ and
‘auto feather’ when there was ample time to abort the take-off.
7) The airline management’s safety culture fostered throughout the airline. We are in the process of developing a comprehensive computer reconstruction of the flight which will help our team understand the sequence of events and will ultimately help us communicate our findings to the aviation community and the general public.

Crash of a McDonnell Douglas MD-83 in Lagos: 163 killed

Date & Time: Jun 3, 2012 at 1545 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-RAM
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Abuja - Lagos
MSN:
53019/1783
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
DAV992
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
147
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
163
Captain / Total flying hours:
18116
Captain / Total hours on type:
7461.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1143
Copilot / Total hours on type:
808
Aircraft flight hours:
60846
Aircraft flight cycles:
35219
Circumstances:
Aircraft was performing flight DAV992 (9J992) from Abuja to Lagos. Following an uneventful flight, crew started the descent and intercepted the glide for runway 18R. Aircraft descended successively from 26,000 feet to 18,100 and 7,700 feet and was configured for landing with gear down, slats and flaps down also. While correctly aligned on the glide and approaching in good weather conditions, captain sent a brief message and declared an emergency, informing ATC that both engines failed. During the next 25 seconds, pilots tried to restart the engines but without success. Aircraft eventually stalled and crashed in the suburb of Iju, some 10,7 km short of runway 18R. On ground, aircraft destroyed several buildings and aircraft was also destroyed by impact forces and post impact fire. All 153 occupants and 10 people on the ground were killed. Several people on the ground were injured as well. Worst aircraft crash in Nigeria since 1973.
Probable cause:
Dual engine failure on approach. There was sufficient fuel in tanks and analysis confirmed the fuel was not contaminated.
Still under investigation by the Nigerian Accident Investigation Board (AIB Nigeria).

Crash of a Boeing 727-200 in Lagos

Date & Time: Sep 7, 2006 at 1305 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-DPF
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Abidjan - Accra - Lagos
MSN:
22644/1768
YOM:
1981
Flight number:
DHL110
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
17295
Captain / Total hours on type:
7820.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2972
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2422
Aircraft flight hours:
52728
Aircraft flight cycles:
34063
Circumstances:
Crew was peforming a cargo flight from Abidjan to Lagos with an intermediate stop in Accra. On approach to Lagos, weather was poor with ceiling 100 feet above minimum, heavy rain falls, visibility 1,000 meters and winds from 080 degrees at 18 knots gusting 30 knots. Copilot was peforming the approach and landing and aircraft touch down at a speed of 167 knots (30 knots above Vref) and 1,427 metres after the runway threshold. Thrust reversers were deployed but captain realised he could not stop the aircraft within the remaining runway so he decided to abort and to started a go around procedure. Thrust reversers were briefly stowed and then re-deployed again. Aircraft overran at a speed of 80 knots, went through the localizer antenna, lost its nose gear and came to rest 400 metres past the runway end. All three occupants were uninjured while the aircraft was considered as damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Decision of the crew to continue an unstabilised approach despite the prevailing adverse weather condition.
The following factors were considered as contributory:
Captain did not take over the control of the flight from the first officer in the known bad weather situation.
Crew resource management was inadequate.

Crash of a Boeing 747-258C in Lagos

Date & Time: Nov 29, 2003 at 0235 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-OOS
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Brussels – Lagos – Johannesburg
MSN:
21190
YOM:
1975
Flight number:
HYC501
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew departed Brussels on a cargo flight to Johannesburg with an intermediate stop in Lagos. On approach by night, the crew was cleared to land on runway 19R that was closed to traffic due to resurfacing process. After touchdown, the aircraft collided with several equipments then veered off runway to the left and came to rest. All nine occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. ATC cleared the crew to land on runway 19R while the runway 19L was the one in service at the time of the accident.
Probable cause:
The AIPB reported that the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority did not know of the closure of the runway, nor that it was aware of the NOTAM until the accident occurred. Runway 19R was not properly closed in accordance with standard practice, as the runway lights were all switched on indicating runway serviceability.

Crash of a Partenavia P.68C Victor in Ikorodu: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jun 16, 2001
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
5N-ATE
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos – Calabar
MSN:
244
YOM:
1981
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Few minutes after takeoff from Lagos-Murtala Muhammed Airport, en route to Calabar, the pilot informed ATC about engine problems and was cleared to return. He apparently attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft struck a tree and crashed in Igbogbo, in the southern suburb of Ikorodu, about 25 km east of Lagos Airport. A passenger was seriously injured while the pilot and the second passenger were killed.

Crash of a BAe 125-600B in Lagos

Date & Time: May 15, 2001
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-RNO
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Yola – Lagos
MSN:
256054
YOM:
1975
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
On final approach to Lagos-Murtala Muhammed Airport, both engines failed simultaneously due to fuel exhaustion. The aircraft lost height, collided with approach lights and crashed short of runway threshold. All four occupants escaped with minor injuries while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. The exact date of the mishap remains unknown, somewhere in May 2001.
Probable cause:
Double engine failure on final approach due to fuel exhaustion. Poor flight preparation.

Crash of a Boeing 727-231 off Ejirin: 144 killed

Date & Time: Nov 7, 1996 at 1703 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BBG
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Port Harcourt - Lagos
MSN:
20054
YOM:
1969
Flight number:
ADK086
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
10
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
134
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
144
Aircraft flight hours:
64956
Aircraft flight cycles:
44613
Circumstances:
After takeoff from Port Harcourt Airport, the crew was cleared to climb to FL240. At 15:47 the flight established initial contact with Lagos Approach Control, and was assigned a transponder code. At 15:54 the flight reported crossing SEPER point. After this position report, the flight appeared not to be maintaining a listening watch, as it gave no reply to two consecutive calls from Approach Control, and then after some time replied to a transmission not meant for it. At the same time a Triax Airlines Boeing 727 (Flight TIX185) had departed Lagos and was flying at FL160 towards Enugu. The Lagos controller had terminated contact with the Triax aircraft when the ADC crew requested to descend. The permission to descend was delayed to allow a corporate jet (5N-APN) to pass beneath the 727 at FL210. At 15:59 Lagos Approach Control then cleared the flight to FL160 and subsequently requested the flight to contact Lagos Radar. The flight was identified by Lagos Radar 41 miles south-east of the airport, and instructed it to fly the heading of 320° to avoid Triax flight 185, and to descend to FL50. At 16:02.50 Lagos Radar instructed the aircraft two times in succession to maintain heading 300. The captain then took over control from the copilot by stating: "I have it." At 16:03.08 the flight reported: "I have the traffic... and I continue my heading to 330 to avoid him". This was the last transmission. The records of the FDR show that flight 086 was maintaining a steady coordinated turn towards heading 330 for the first 10 seconds of the last 50 seconds of the flight. After 15 seconds, the airplane was put in bank angle of 43.2°. It maintained this configuration for 10 seconds before the bank angle increased to 68.8 degrees. This attitude was observed for 5.5 seconds before it was further increased to 83 degrees. The airplane must have suffered from high speed stall and gone into a roll with a nose down attitude. The aircraft appeared to be recovering just before it impacted the lagoon water because it succeeded in reducing the vertical acceleration from 8.44 to 2.1 G and the bank angle to 61.6°. But it did not have sufficient height to make a full recovery and crashed in the lagoon about 7,5 km west of Ejirin. The wreckage was found in the afternoon of the following day. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 144 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the accident was the consequence of the untidy traffic separation by the radar controller which resulted from the vectoring of ADK086 towards the track of the opposite traffic TIX185. The error of judgement by the pilot of ADK086 to continue his turn to heading 330 to avoid TIX185 and his subsequent collision avoidance manoeuvre constituted the remote causes of this accident.

Crash of a Tupolev TU-134A in Lagos: 15 killed

Date & Time: Jun 24, 1995 at 1605 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
RA-65617
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Kaduna - Lagos
MSN:
08068
YOM:
1974
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
74
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
15
Aircraft flight hours:
24844
Aircraft flight cycles:
15740
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Kaduna, the crew started the approach to Lagos-Murtala Muhammed Airport in poor weather conditions with heavy rain falls and strong winds. On short final, the wind changed to a tail component and became stronger. This caused the aircraft to land too far down the runway, about 1,000 metres past the runway threshold. On a wet runway surface, the aircraft was unable to stop within the remaining distance, overran, struck the concrete structure of a drainage ditch and came to rest 147 metres further, bursting into flames. 65 people were rescued while 15 passengers were killed. The aircraft was destroyed.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the accident was the consequence of the following factors:
- Poor quality in the organization of the meteorological support at Lagos airport, as a result of which the crew did not receive reliable information about the actual direction and force of the wind during the approach and landing procedure, which caused the aircraft to land too far down the runway;
- The presence of a layer of water on the runway, about which the crew was not informed prior to landing, which caused the aircraft to enter an aquaplaning mode and the loss of braking action efficiency;
- The failure of the crew to initiate a go-around procedure after he encountered poor weather conditions during the final stage of the approach and an erroneous estimation of the actual remaining length of the runway for the safe completion of the landing in case of heavy rainfall;
- Violation on part of the cabin crew requirements for the number and placement of flight attendants at landing, which led to unnoticed penetration of 15 passengers into the rear trunk and toilets after the plane crashed and their death in the event of a fire;
- Unsatisfactory organization of rescue operations at Lagos Airport.

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter 300 in Lagos: 1 killed

Date & Time: Apr 23, 1995 at 1240 LT
Operator:
Registration:
5N-AJQ
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Port Harcourt – Warri – Lagos
MSN:
607
YOM:
1979
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
7
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Circumstances:
On approach to Lagos-Murtala Muhammed Airport, the crew encountered poor weather conditions with heavy rain falls and strong winds. The copilot was in command and the airplane was too high on approach so the captain took over controls and steeped the approach. Nevertheless, the aircraft was still too high over runway 19L threshold when it encountered severe downdraft. It nosed down and struck the runway surface nose gear first. It bounced, veered off runway to the left, rolled to the apron and eventually collided with a parked Fokker F27 Friendship 200MP of the Nigerian Air Force registered NAF908. Both aircraft were destroyed and one of the pilot on board the Twin Otter was killed, all eight other occupants were injured.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the crew lost control of the airplane upon landing after the wind suddenly changed from 270° at 10 knots to 360° at 50 knots. Also, windshear was suspected.

Crash of a Lockheed C-130H Hercules in Lagos: 159 killed

Date & Time: Sep 26, 1992 at 1735 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
NAF911
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Lagos - Kaduna - Jos
MSN:
4624
YOM:
1975
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
151
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
159
Circumstances:
Just after liftoff, while in initial climb, two engines lost power simultaneously then failed. The crew elected to find a suitable area for an emergency landing when a third engine failed. The aircraft stalled, entered a nose down attitude and crashed in a swampy area near the airport. All 159 occupants were killed, among them military personnels from Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Civilians were also among the passengers.
Probable cause:
It is believed that the engine failed because the fuel was contaminated with water and bacteria.