Zone

Crash of a Boeing 737-282 in Port Harcourt

Date & Time: Jul 14, 2008 at 1844 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BIG
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos – Port Harcourt
MSN:
23044/973
YOM:
1983
Flight number:
NCH138
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
41
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
8688
Captain / Total hours on type:
452.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
7500
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2500
Aircraft flight hours:
55508
Aircraft flight cycles:
36263
Circumstances:
On 14th July, 2008 at 16:49 h, a Boeing 737–282 aircraft with nationality and registration marks 5N-BIG, operated by Chanchangi Airlines Ltd, commenced a scheduled domestic flight from Murtala Muhammed International Airport, (DNMM) with call sign NCH138 for Port Harcourt International Airport (DNPO). Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plan was filed for the flight. There were 47 persons on board (41 passengers, 2 flight crew and 4 flight attendants) and 3 hours fuel endurance. The Captain was the Pilot Flying (PF) and The First Officer (FO) was the Pilot Monitoring (PM). The FO stated that NCH138 was initially scheduled to depart at 15:30 h, but the flight was delayed due to loading of passenger baggage. The Captain stated that NCH138 was cleared to FL290 and the flight continued normally. According to the DNPO Air Traffic Control (ATC) watch supervisor on duty, NCH138 contacted DNPO Approach Control (APP) at 17:05 h with flight information estimating POT at 17:50 h. NCH138 was issued an inbound clearance to POT1 VOR2 with the following weather information for 17:00 h as: Wind calm, Visibility 10 km, Broken clouds 270 m, Scattered clouds 600 m, Cumulonimbus clouds scattered, temperature 25/24°C, Thunderstorms, Temporarily Variable 8 kt, gusting 18 kt, Visibility 3000 m, Thunderstorms and rain, and expect runway (RWY) 21 for landing. According to the First Officer NCH138 requested descent into POT at about 100 NM. The Captain added that due to ATC delay, the descent commenced at about 80 NM. The Control Tower Watch Supervisor stated that at 18:00 h, NCH138 requested to hold over POT at 3500 ft for weather improvement, because there was rain overhead the station with build-up closing in at the threshold of RWY 21. At about 15 NM, between radials 180° and 210°, NCH138 reported breaking out of weather. At 18:19 h, NCH138 requested weather information from the Tower. Tower advised the flight crew that RWY 03 was better for landing. At this time, NCH138 requested RWY 03 for approach and Approach Control cleared NCH138 for the approach to RWY 03. At 18:27 h, the flight crew reported established on approach to RWY 03, leaving 2000 ft. The Approach Control then transferred NCH138 to DNPO Tower for landing instructions. At 18:28 h, the Tower instructed NCH138 to report field in sight. The flight crew acknowledged and reported RWY 03 in sight. Tower cleared NCH138 to land on RWY 03 and NCH138 was cautioned that the runway was wet. At 18:34 h, NCH138 executed and reported a missed approach. NCH138 requested a climb to 3500 ft. NCH138 was cleared to climb and instructed to report overhead POT. At 18:39 h, NCH138 requested a descent and clearance for an approach to RWY 21. Approach Control cleared NCH138 to descend to 2000 ft and report to Tower when established on the approach and also to report leaving 2000 ft. At 18:42 h, NCH138 reported inbound maintaining 2000 ft. The Approach Control requested the distance from the runway and sought consent of NCH138 for Arik 514 at the holding point to take off. NCH138 declined, as they were about 10 miles to touchdown. At 18:45 h, NCH138 reported five miles to touchdown. Approach Control acknowledged and instructed NCH138 to report field in sight and thereafter handed over to Tower on 119.2 MHz. When contacting the Tower, NCH138 was cleared to land on RWY 21, wind 0100 /10 kt and was advised to exercise caution due to wet runway. NCH138 acknowledged the clearance. NCH138 landed hard and bounced three times on the runway. According to the ATC controller, after touch down the aircraft rolled in an s-pattern before it overran the runway. NCH138 made a 180° turn with the right engine hitting the ground. The aircraft came to a final stop on the left side and 10 m beyond the stopway. The accident occurred at night in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The Aerodrome Rescue and Fire Fighting Service (ARFFS) arrived the scene and commenced rescue operations immediately. All occupants on board were evacuated; one passenger sustaining a minor injury.
Probable cause:
The decision to land following an unstabilized approach (high rate of descent and high approach speed. A go-around was not initiated.
Contributory factors:
1. The deteriorating weather conditions with a line squall prevented a diversion to the alternates.
2. The runway was wet with significant patches of standing water.
Final Report:

Crash of a Beechcraft 1900D in Bushi: 3 killed

Date & Time: Mar 15, 2008 at 0920 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-JAH
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Lagos - Bebi
MSN:
UE-322
YOM:
1998
Flight number:
TWD8300
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
9730
Captain / Total hours on type:
852.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
444
Copilot / Total hours on type:
204
Aircraft flight hours:
5578
Circumstances:
The aircraft, Beech 1900D with flight number TWD8300 on a positioning flight, filed an Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) with Air Traffic Services (ATS) at Murtala Muhammed Airport (MMA) Lagos for departure to Bebi airstrip, Obudu on a filed flight plan LAG – UA609 – POTGO – DCT – ENU – DCT - OBUDU. But the actual route flown was LAG – UA609 – POTGO – LIPAR – LUNDO – IKROP – BUDU. The aircraft departed MMA at 0736 hrs as per the flight plan, climbed to FL250, estimated MOPAD at 0755 hrs, BEN at 0814hrs, POTGO at 0837hrs, LIPAR at 0844hrs, LUNDO at 0902 hrs and OBUDU destination at 0917hrs. The aircraft was transferred to Port Harcourt at 0845 hrs thereafter the crew requested descent. It was cleared to FL110 but on passing through FL160 requested further descent and was then released to Enugu at 0856 hrs by Port Harcourt. Enugu cleared it to FL050. The aircraft deviated from the flight plan route, and flew on airway UA609 direct to IKROP from POTGO. The inputs into Global Positioning System (GPS) gave the crew different distances to Bebi. The crew agreed on a coordinate to input and thereafter were busy trying to locate the airstrip physically. During this process the Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS), warning signals and sound of “Terrain, terrain…..pull up” was heard several times without any of the pilot following the command. The aircraft flew into terrain, crashed and was destroyed. At 0923hrs, the Radio Operator at Bebi called the aircraft to confirm its position, but received no reply. The FDR showed that the aircraft crashed at about 0920:15 hrs at an altitude of about 3,400ft at Bushi Village during the hours of daylight with three fatalities. The aircraft flew for 103.75 minutes before impact.At 0924 hrs, Bebi Radio Operator called Calabar, to confirm if in contact with 5N-JAH, Calabar replied negative contact. The burnt wreckage was found by hunters in a dense wooded area on 30 August 2008.
Probable cause:
The flight crew conducted an approach into a VFR airfield in an instrument meteorological condition and did not maintain terrain clearance and minimum safe altitude which led to Controlled Flight Into Terrain. The crew did not respond promptly to GPWS warning.
Contributory Factors:
- The flight crew was not familiar with the route in a situation of low clouds, poor visibility and mountainous terrain.
- The Area Controllers did not detect the estimate as passed by the pilot for positions not in the filed flight plan (LIPAR and LUNDO) and omitting ENUGU.
- The flight crew changed from IFR flight to VFR flight without proper procedure and ATC clearance.
- The crew did not use Jeppesen charts as approved in WINGS AVIATION Operational Specifications by NCAA.
- The Lagos Area Control Center (ACC) did not detect or question the disparity in waypoints and routing as read back by the crew, compared with the filed flight plan.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 727-277 in Lagos

Date & Time: Sep 7, 2006 at 1305 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-DPF
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Abidjan - Accra - Lagos
MSN:
22644/1768
YOM:
1981
Flight number:
DHL110
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
17295
Captain / Total hours on type:
7820.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2972
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2422
Aircraft flight hours:
52728
Aircraft flight cycles:
34063
Circumstances:
On the day of the accident, Flight DV110 routing was Abidjan – Accra - Lagos. It departed Abidjan at 1015 hrs for Lagos via Accra. The aircraft finally departed Accra for Lagos at 1145 hrs with a total declared cargo weight of 50014 lbs (22733 kgs). The aircraft contacted Lagos Area Control at 1242 hrs, while maintaining FL 210 (21, 000ft) and was given an in-bound clearance to Lagos VOR (LAG) for ILS approach on runway 18L. At 1252 hrs, Lagos Approach cleared it to FL050 (5,000 feet) and at 12 NM, it was further cleared down to 3500ft on QNH 1013 hpa, and finally to 2,200 feet and to report established on the ILS. At 4 NM to the runway, the aircraft reported fully established on the ILS and was handed over to Control Tower for landing instructions. At 1303 hrs and 2 NM to the runway, the aircraft was cleared to land on runway 18L but to exercise caution, as the runway surface was wet. The cloud was low; the Captain said in his statement that the cloud base was about 100 feet above minimum. Speci weather was also available to the crew. The pilot was advised to exercise caution due to the rain and the weather at that time. In spite of all the warnings the copilot was still allowed to proceed with the landing. At the point of touch down the captain observed that it was impossible to stop on the runway and he called for a go-around. The procedure was not properly executed and thus the aircraft overshot the runway 400m into the grass area. There was no fire outbreak and no injury was sustained by any of the crew members. There was serious damage to the aircraft.
Probable cause:
Causal Factor:
The decision of the crew to continue an unstabilised approach despite the prevailing adverse weather condition.
Contributory Factors:
- The captain did not take over the control of the flight from the first officer in the known bad weather situation,
- The crew resource management was inadequate.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 737-2L9 in Lisa: 117 killed

Date & Time: Oct 22, 2005 at 2040 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BFN
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Abidjan – Accra – Lagos – Abuja
MSN:
22734
YOM:
1981
Flight number:
BLV210
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
111
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
117
Captain / Total flying hours:
13429
Captain / Total hours on type:
153.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
762
Copilot / Total hours on type:
451
Aircraft flight hours:
55772
Aircraft flight cycles:
36266
Circumstances:
The accident was reported to erstwhile Accident Investigation and Prevention Bureau (AIPB) now Accident Investigation Bureau (AIB) on Saturday 22nd of October, 2005. The site of the wreckage was located on the 23rd of October, 2005 and investigation began the same day. On October 22, 2005, at 2040 hrs, Bellview Airlines (BLV) Flight 210, a Boeing B737-200, 5N-BFN, crashed while climbing to cruise altitude shortly after take-off from Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos (LOS). The flight was operating under the provisions of the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA) Air Navigation Regulations (ANRs) as a scheduled domestic passenger flight from LOS to Abuja International Airport (ABV). The flight departed LOS for ABV at 2035 hrs, with 2 pilots, 1 licensed engineer, 3 flight attendants, and 111 passengers on board. The airplane entered a descent and impacted open terrain at Lisa Village, Ogun State. All 117 persons were killed and the airplane was destroyed by impact forces and fire. Instrument meteorological conditions prevailed. The airplane was operated on an Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) plan. The accident occurred on the final leg of a one-day round trip from Abuja to Abidjan with intermediate stops at Lagos and Accra for both the outbound and inbound segments. The trip through the second stop at Accra (the fourth leg) was reported without incident. On the fifth leg, during the taxi for takeoff at Accra, the pilot and the engineer discussed the low pressure reading of 650 psi in the brake accumulator system according to the pilot that flew the aircraft from Accra to Lagos. Normal accumulator brake pressure is 1000 psi. The captain continued the flight to the destination, LOS, without incident, where the discrepancy was logged. The engineer briefed the maintenance crew about the low pressure reading. The crew consisted of two Licensed Aircraft Engineers (LAEs) and the outbound engineer for Flight 210. LAEs and engineer on riding coverage worked together to troubleshoot the brake system, which included verifying the pressure reading with the pressure gauge from another Boeing 737 (5N-BFM) in the fleet. It was determined that the source of the low pressure was due to a faulty brake accumulator. On checking the Minimum Equipment List (MEL), the maintenance engineers decided that the aircraft could be released for operation with the fault. Before Flight 210 departed, the captain discussed en-route weather with another pilot who had just completed a flight from Port Harcourt to Lagos. The other pilot informed the accident captain of a squall line in the vicinity of Benin. The accident captain indicated that he experienced the same weather condition on his previous flight from Abuja to Lagos. The chronology of the flight was determined from the transcript of the recorded radio communications between Air Traffic Control and Flight 210 and post accident interviews of air traffic personnel. According to the transcript, the pilot of Flight 210 contacted the tower at 1917:02 UTC and requested for startup and clearance was given. The controller gave him the temperature and QNH, which were 27 degrees Centigrade and 1010 millibars respectively. At 1924:08 UTC, the Pilot requested and got approval for taxi to Runway 18L. At 1927 UTC, the tower requested for Persons on Board (POB), endurance and registration. In response, the pilot indicated the number of persons on board as 114 minus 6 crew, fuel endurance as 3 hours and 50 minutes and registration 5N-BFN. The tower acknowledged the information and issued the route clearance via Airway UR778, Flight Level 250, with a right turn-out on course. The pilot read back the clearance and the controller acknowledged and instructed the pilot to report when ready for takeoff. At 1927:55 UTC, the pilot requested “can we have a left turn out please?” and soon afterwards his request was granted by the controller. At 1928:08 UTC, the tower cleared BLV 210 as follows: "BLV 210 RUNWAY HEADING 3500FT LEFT TURN ON COURSE" At 1928;12 UTC, BLV 210 replied "3500FT LEFT TURN ON COURSE 210". 1928:47 UTC, the pilot reported ready for takeoff, and after given the wind condition as 270 degrees at 7 knots the controller cleared Flight 210 for departure at 1928:50 UTC. The pilot acknowledged the clearance, and at 1929:14 UTC requested “And correction, Bellview 210, please we will take a right turn out. We just had a sweep around the weather and right turn out will be okay for us.” The controller responded “right turn after departure, right turn on course” and the pilot acknowledged. According to the transcript, at 1931:52 UTC, the controller reported Flight 210 as airborne and instructed the pilot to contact LOS Approach Control. During the post-crash interview, the controller indicated he saw the airplane turn right, but was unable to determine its attitude due to darkness. He indicated the airplane sounded and appeared normal. At 1932:22 UTC, the pilot made initial contact with Approach Control and reported “Approach, Bellview 210 is with you on a right turn coming out of 1600 (feet)”. The Approach Control replied “report again passing one three zero.” The pilot acknowledged at 1932:35 UTC, and that was the last known transmission from the flight. According to the transcript, the controller attempted to regain contact with the flight at 19:43:46 UTC. Repeated attempts were unsuccessful. Emergency alert was then sent out to relevant agencies including the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) for search and rescue operations to commence. The airplane struck the ground on flat terrain in a relatively open and wooded area, 14NM north of the airport (6˚ 48’ 43” N and 3˚ 18’ 19” E).
Probable cause:
The AIB, after an extensive investigation, could not identify conclusive evidence to explain the cause of the accident involving Bellview Flight 210. The investigation considered several factors that could explain the accident. They include the PIC training of the Captain before taking Command on the B737 aircraft which was inadequate, the cumulative flight hours of the pilot in the days before the accident which was indicative of excessive workload that could lead to fatigue. Furthermore, the investigation revealed that the airplane had technical defects. The airplane should not have been dispatched for either the accident flight or earlier flights. The absence of forensic evidence prevented the determination of the captain’s medical condition at the time of the accident. The missing flight recorders to reconstruct the flight also precluded the determination of his performance during the flight. Due to lack of evidence, the investigation could not determine the effect, if any, of the atmospheric disturbances on the airplane or the flight crew’s ability to maintain continued flight. The operator could not maintain the continuing airworthiness of its aircraft, in ensuring compliance of its flight and maintenance personnel with the regulatory requirements. The Civil Aviation Authority’s safety oversight of the operator’s procedures and operations was inadequate.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 747-258C in Lagos

Date & Time: Nov 29, 2003 at 0235 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-OOS
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Brussels – Lagos – Johannesburg
MSN:
21190
YOM:
1975
Flight number:
HYC501
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew departed Brussels on a cargo flight to Johannesburg with an intermediate stop in Lagos. On approach by night, the crew was cleared to land on runway 19R that was closed to traffic due to resurfacing process. After touchdown, the aircraft collided with several equipments then veered off runway to the left and came to rest. All nine occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. ATC cleared the crew to land on runway 19R while the runway 19L was the one in service at the time of the accident.
Probable cause:
The AIPB reported that the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority did not know of the closure of the runway, nor that it was aware of the NOTAM until the accident occurred. Runway 19R was not properly closed in accordance with standard practice, as the runway lights were all switched on indicating runway serviceability.

Crash of a BAc 111-525FT in Kano: 149 killed

Date & Time: May 4, 2002 at 1335 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-ESF
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Schedule:
Jos - Kano - Lagos
MSN:
266
YOM:
1980
Flight number:
EXW4226
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
71
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
85
Circumstances:
The aircraft was completing a regular schedule flight from Jos to Lagos with an intermediate stop in Kano. Weather conditions were good but the OAT at the time of the accident was +42° C. Due to construction works (retreatment of the asphalt surface), the longest runway 24/06 was closed to traffic so the crew was departing from runway 23 at Kano-Mallam Aminu Kano Airport which is 2,600 metres long. Due to high temperature and reduced performances, the aircraft used the entire runway length, overran and rolled on a grassy area for few dozen metres before lifting off. During initial climb, the aircraft encountered difficulties to gain sufficient height and to follow a positive rate of climb when it collided with obstacles and crashed in the district of Gwammaja located about 2 km past the end of runway 23. The aircraft was totally destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire as well a several buildings, among them a school and a mosque. Among the 77 people on board the aircraft, six survived (five passengers and one stewardess). All 71 other occupants were killed as well as 78 people on the ground. More than 70 other people on the ground were injured, some seriously. It was later reported that the aircraft was out of service for 52 days due to engine problems. Nevertheless, both engines were changed few days prior to the accident and accumulated 10 hours of flight since.

Crash of a Partenavia P.68C Victor in Ikorodu: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jun 16, 2001
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
5N-ATE
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos – Calabar
MSN:
244
YOM:
1981
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Few minutes after takeoff from Lagos-Murtala Muhammed Airport, en route to Calabar, the pilot informed ATC about engine problems and was cleared to return. He apparently attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft struck a tree and crashed in Igbogbo, in the southern suburb of Ikorodu, about 25 km east of Lagos Airport. A passenger was seriously injured while the pilot and the second passenger were killed.

Crash of a BAe 125-600B in Lagos

Date & Time: May 15, 2001
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-RNO
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Yola – Lagos
MSN:
256054
YOM:
1975
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
On final approach to Lagos-Murtala Muhammed Airport, both engines failed simultaneously due to fuel exhaustion. The aircraft lost height, collided with approach lights and crashed short of runway threshold. All four occupants escaped with minor injuries while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. The exact date of the mishap remains unknown, somewhere in May 2001.
Probable cause:
Double engine failure on final approach due to fuel exhaustion. Poor flight preparation.

Crash of an Airbus A310-304 off Abidjan: 169 killed

Date & Time: Jan 30, 2000 at 2109 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5Y-BEN
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Abidjan - Lagos - Nairobi
MSN:
426
YOM:
1986
Flight number:
KQ431
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
10
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
169
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
169
Captain / Total flying hours:
8663
Captain / Total hours on type:
1664.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
7295
Copilot / Total hours on type:
5768
Aircraft flight hours:
58115
Aircraft flight cycles:
15026
Circumstances:
On Sunday 30 January 2000, the Kenya Airways Airbus 310-304, registered 5Y−BEN, was undertaking the scheduled international flight KQ 431 transporting passengers from Abidjan to Nairobi, via Lagos. On board there were 10 crewmembers and 169 passengers. On the same day, in the afternoon, 5Y-BEN had flown in from Nairobi and landed at Félix Houphouët-Boigny International Airport in Abidjan at 15 h 15. The unfavorable meteorological at Lagos had obliged the pilot, after a thirty minutes hold at Lagos, to divert to Abidjan. The relief crew, which had arrived two days previously on flight KQ 430 on Friday 28 January 2000, at 15 h 44, took over on board 5Y-BEN, to undertake flight KQ 431 from Abidjan to Nairobi, via Lagos. Departure was scheduled for 21 h 00, in accordance with the initial program. The copilot was pilot flying, the Captain was pilot not flying. At 20 h 55 min 22 s, the crew established contact with Abidjan Airport control tower and asked for start-up clearance. This was granted. At 20 h 56 min 09 s, the Captain ordered the checklist to be performed and announced the type of take-off by saying "Flex sixty" at 20 h 56 min 19 s. At 21 h 00 min 18 s, three minutes and nineteen seconds after the start-up of the first engine (engine n° 2), the Captain announced over the interphone that linked him with the ground mechanic “we have two normal start-ups”. At 21 h 01 min 07 s, the crew of 5Y-BEN asked for clearance to taxi. The tower controller put them on standby. A few seconds later, he cleared them to taxi. At 21 h 02 min 33 s, the Captain ordered the Copilot to set the flaps at 15°. Later, at 21 h 04 min 50 s , the copilot announced "trim: 0.9 nose up, Slats/flaps 15/15". The airplane began to taxi at 21 h 07 min 35 s, the tower controller informed the crew of the latest wind, cleared them to take off and asked the crew the call back when they reached flight level 40. At 21 h 07 min 45 s, the copilot read back the clearance. This was the last communication between the crew and the control tower. At 21 h 08 min 08 s, the copilot announced "Take-off checklist completed … cleared for take-off". At 21 h 08 min 18 s, the Captain applied take-off power and announced "thrust, SRS, and runway" then, nine seconds later “100 knots”. At 21 h 08 min 50 s, the Captain announced "V1 and Rotate(4)", then two seconds later "Positive". The airplane took off. At 21 h 08 min 57 s, the copilot announced "Positive rate of climb, gear up". Less than two seconds later the stall warning sounded. At 21 h 09 min 07 s, the automatic call out (AC) announced 300 feet. At 21 h 09 min 14 s, the copilot asked "what’s the problem?". From 21 h 09 min 16 s, the AC announced successively 200, 100, 50, 30, 20 and 10 feet. Meanwhile, at 21 h 09 min 18 s, the copilot ordered the aural warning to be cut. Two seconds later, the GPWS sounded the “Whoop...” alarm followed, a half a second later, by the AC announcement of 50 feet. At 21 h 09 min 22 s, an aural master warning started, immediately followed by an order from the Captain to climb: "Go up!", though this was preceded six tenths of a second by the AC announcement of 10 feet. At 21 h 09 min 23.9 s, end of the master warning, followed immediately within a tenth of a second by the noise of the impact. The time of the accident is presumed to be 21 h 09 min 24 s.
Probable cause:
The Commission of Inquiry concluded that the cause of the accident to flight KQ 431 on 30 January 2000 was a collision with the sea that resulted from the pilot flying applying one part of the procedure, by pushing forward on the control column to stop the stick shaker, following the initiation of a stall warning on rotation, while the airplane was not in a true stall situation. In fact, the FCOM used by the airline states that whenever a stall warning is encountered at low altitude (stick shaker activation), it should be considered as an immediate threat to the maintenance of a safe flight path. It specifies that at the first sign of an imminent stall or at the time of a stick shaker activation, the following actions must be undertaken simultaneously: thrust levers ion TOGA position, reduction of pitch attitude, wings level, check that speed brakes are retracted. The investigation showed that the pilot flying reduced the pitch attitude but did not apply TOGA thrust on the engines. The investigation was unable to determine if the crew performed the other two actions: leveling the wings and checking that the speed brakes were retracted.
The following elements contributed to the accident:
• the pilot flying’s action on the control column put the airplane into a descent without the crew realizing it, despite the radio altimeter callouts;
• the GPWS warnings that could have alerted the crew to an imminent contact with the sea were masked by the priority stall and overspeed warnings, in accordance
with the rules on the prioritization of warnings;
• the conditions for a takeoff performed towards the sea and at night provided no external visual references that would have allowed the crew to be aware of the
direct proximity of the sea.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1A Bandeirante in Abuja: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jan 5, 2000 at 1325 LT
Operator:
Registration:
5N-AXL
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos - Abuja - Ilorin
MSN:
110-455
YOM:
1984
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
11
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
On final approach to Abuja-Nnamdi Azikiwe Airport runway 22, the crew declared an emergency and reported smoke in the cockpit and cabin. Shortly later, the aircraft stalled and crashed 120 metres short of runway. A passenger and one people on the ground were killed while 12 other occupants were injured.