Ground accident of an Ilyushin II-18 in Bucharest

Date & Time: Nov 23, 1977
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HA-MOF
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Istanbul - Bucharest - Budapest
MSN:
183 0063 01
YOM:
1963
Flight number:
MA203
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The approach to Bucharest-Otopeni Airport was completed in heavy rain falls. After landing, the crew vacated runway and was taxiing when the airplane collided with two trucks parked on the taxiway. The pilot stopped the airplane and all occupants were evacuated safely. There were no injuries but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. It was reported that both truck drivers stopped their vehicles at an unauthorized position.

Crash of a Tupolev TU-134 in Urziceni: 29 killed

Date & Time: Sep 21, 1977 at 1659 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HA-LBC
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Schedule:
Istanbul - Bucharest - Budapest
MSN:
8 35 06 05
YOM:
1968
Flight number:
MA203
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
45
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
29
Circumstances:
While descending to Bucharest-Otopeni Airport at an altitude of 4,000 feet, the crew was cleared for a straight-in approach to runway 26 and to descend to 2,000 feet. The airplane lost height and struck the ground. It lost its undercarriage and slid for few hundred meters before coming to rest in flames in an open field located 6,3 km southwest of Urziceni, about 37 km northeast of Otopeni Airport. All eight crew members and 21 passengers were killed while 24 other people were injured. The aircraft was destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the crew failed to realize his approach speed was too low, causing the airplane to lose height and to stall on approach.

Crash of a Boeing 727-2F2 near Isparta: 154 killed

Date & Time: Sep 19, 1976 at 2315 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-JBH
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Istanbul - Antalya
MSN:
20982
YOM:
1974
Flight number:
TK452
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
146
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
154
Circumstances:
The airplane departed Istanbul-Yeşilköy Airport at 2245LT on a scheduled flight to Antalya, carrying 146 passengers and a crew of eight. After passing over the Afyon VOR at an altitude of 25,000 feet, the crew requested the permission to descend to 13,000 feet. A 2311LT, the captain reported Antalya city lights in sight and started the descent to runway 36. At this time, the real position of the aircraft was about 100 km north of Antalya. Four minutes later, while descending by night under VFR mode at an altitude of 3,700 feet, the airplane struck the slope of Mt Karakaya (1,371 metres high) located south of Isparta. The airplane disintegrated on impact and debris were found at an altitude of 1,130 metres. All 154 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The airplane was descending by night under VFR mode to Isparta instead of Antalya after the flying crew mistook the city lights of Antalya with the ones of Isparta (100 km to the north). This error of judgment on part of the crew caused the aircraft to initiate the descent prematurely and to struck the mountain that the crew failed to locate due to lack of visual references. In consequence, the accident was the result of a controlled flight into terrain following navigational errors.

Crash of a Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident 3B in Vrbovec: 63 killed

Date & Time: Sep 10, 1976 at 1114 LT
Operator:
Registration:
G-AWZT
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
London - Istanbul
MSN:
2320
YOM:
1972
Flight number:
BA476
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
54
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
63
Captain / Total flying hours:
10781
Captain / Total hours on type:
399.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
3655
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1592
Aircraft flight hours:
8627
Aircraft flight cycles:
6952
Circumstances:
Hawker Siddeley HS-121 Trident 3B operated by British Airways as flight BE476 and a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, operated by Inex-Adria Aviopromet, were destroyed when both aircraft crashed near Vrobec following a mid-air collision. All 176 on board both aircraft were killed. The Trident was on a scheduled flight from London-Heathrow Airport in England to Istanbul-Yesilköy Airport in Turkey, carrying 54 passengers and a crew of 9. The aircraft took off at 08:32 GMT and the flight proceeded normally. First contact with the Zagreb Area Control Centre was established on the Upper Sector frequency 134,45 MHz at 10:04 GMT. The flight was requested to report passing the Zagreb VOR at flight level 330. The aircraft flew along the centreline of airway UB5 with slight side deviation 1-2 km to the right due to wind. At 2 minutes and 50 seconds before the collision, the aircraft changed heading to 115° to head back towards the airway centreline. Airspeed was 295 Kts. The DC-9 departed Split Airport at 09:48 GMT to fly 108 West German tourists back to Cologne. Flight JP550 was issued instructions to climb to FL180. At 09:54 the flight, on passing flight level 130, switched to the Zagreb Area Control Centre lower sector east frequency of 124.6 MHz, receiving clearance to climb to FL240 and later to FL260. At 10:03 the crew switched to the frequency of the middle sector controller, responsible for safety and regulation of traffic between flight levels 250 and 310. This controller cleared to flight to FL350. The aircraft assumed a heading of 353° and a speed of 273 Kts as it passed a beam and to the west of the KOS NDB, approximately 2-3 km from the airway centreline. While heading towards the Zagreb VOR, the flight crew radioed the Upper Sector controller on frequency 134,45 MHz at 10:14:04 GMT and reported that they were climbing through FL325. The controller then requested, in Serbo-Croatian, flight JP550 to maintain their present altitude and report passing the Zagreb VOR. The controller stated that an aircraft was in front passing from left to right at FL335, while in fact BE476 was at FL330. At 10:14:38 the crew replied, also in Serbo-Croatian, that they where maintaining FL330. Three seconds later both aircraft collided. The outer five meters of the DC-9's left wing cut through the Trident's cockpit. Due to the sudden decompression, the forward part of the Trident's fuselage disintegrated. The remaining part of the fuselage struck the ground tail-first. With it's left wing torn off, the DC-9 tumbled down and hit the ground right-wing first.
Probable cause:
Direct cause of the accident was the struck of the DC-9 wing into the middle side of the Trident 3B fuselage which occurred at the height of 33.000 feet above Zagreb VOR so that both aircraft became uncontrollable and fell on the ground.
- Improper ATC operation,
- Non-compliance with regulations on continuous listening to the appropriate radio frequency of ATC,
- Non-performance of look-out duty from the cockpits of either aircraft.
Final Report:

Crash of a Douglas DC-10-30CF in Istanbul

Date & Time: Jan 2, 1976 at 0636 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N1031F
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Jeddah - Ankara
MSN:
46825
YOM:
1973
Flight number:
SV5130
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
12
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
364
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
9848
Circumstances:
Leased by Saudi Arabian Airlines, the aircraft was completing a charter flight (hajj flight) from Jeddah to Ankara. En route, the crew was informed about poor weather conditions in Ankara (limited visibility due to foggy conditions) and was instructed to divert to Istanbul-Yeşilköy Airport. On approach to runway 24, the copilot informed the captain that one of the VASI's light was red and that their altitude was insufficient. The captain increased engine power but the aircraft continued to descent until it struck the ground eight meters short of the concrete runway. On impact, the left engine (n°1) was torn off and both left main gear and central gear were also torn off when the airplane struck the shoulder of the first runway's concrete block. The aircraft slid on its belly for few hundred meters, veered to the left and came to rest in flames in a grassy area. All 376 occupants were quickly evacuated, among them 10 were slightly injured. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The crew reported the runway in sight while passing the local NDB about 600 feet below the published minimums. The descent was completed below the glide slope. There were strong evidences that the first officer's altitude callouts were from the radio-altimeter, which was considered as a contributing factor.
Final Report:

Crash of a Fokker F28 Fellowship 1000 off Istanbul: 42 killed

Date & Time: Jan 30, 1975 at 1850 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-JAP
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Izmir - Istanbul
MSN:
11058
YOM:
1972
Flight number:
TK345
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
38
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
42
Aircraft flight hours:
3713
Aircraft flight cycles:
5062
Circumstances:
By night, the crew was approaching runway 06 at Istanbul-Yeşilköy Airport when all runway lights failed due to an electrical power failure. The crew initiated a go-around manoeuvre when 22 seconds later, the power was reset. The crew contacted ATC to obtain a landing clearance but as a Pan Am Boeing 707 was taking off from the same runway, ATC instructed the crew to extend a downwind circuit to the west. Few minutes later, while cruising under VFR mode at an altitude of 800 feet, the airplane went out of control and crashed into the Marmara Sea about 30 km west of the Airport. The aircraft was destroyed and all 42 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The exact cause of the accident could not be determined. However, it is believed that the pilot-in-command may lose control of the airplane after suffering a spatial disorientation while flying by night under VFR mode over the Marmara Sea without any visual reference points.

Crash of a Fokker F28 Fellowship 1000 in Izmir: 66 killed

Date & Time: Jan 26, 1974 at 0730 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-JAO
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Izmir - Istanbul
MSN:
11057
YOM:
1972
Flight number:
TK301
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
68
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
66
Captain / Total flying hours:
2600
Captain / Total hours on type:
577.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2794
Copilot / Total hours on type:
395
Aircraft flight hours:
2269
Aircraft flight cycles:
3133
Circumstances:
Shortly after closing the doors and receiving tower permission the aircraft was taxied to the threshold of Runway 35 and began a rolling takeoff without delay. According to witnesses the aircraft had run approximately 3,200 feet before becoming airborne. When about 8 to 10 meters above the ground it yawed to the left and pitched nose-down. Contact with the ground was made in a nearly level attitude, first by the outboard fairing doors of the left wing flap, then by the left side of the fuselage belly, hitting the bank of a drainage ditch, which parallels the left (west) side of the runway at a distance of 28 meters from the runway. The aircraft then disintegrated and caught fire within 100 meters of travel. A crew member and six passengers survived while 66 other occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The aircraft stalled on takeoff due to over-rotation and frost accretion on the wings. The aircraft remained overnight at Cumaovasi Airport in an open area. In the morning, 26 January at 0400 GMT, the temperature was 0° C and the relative humidity was 95%. When the takeoff was made the temperature had reached +3° C and the humidity 97%. In that weather condition some frost accretion existed on the upper wing surfaces and elevators. (The same kind of frost occurred on the wings of another F28 waiting at the apron at the same hours next day under almost the same meteorological conditions.) During the walk-around inspection prior to takeoff, frost formation was not noticed. It is quite possible that the temperature on the wings and tail of an aircraft parked overnight in the open could be even lower due to radiation. The length of Cumaovasi runway is 6,005 feet. According to the temperature and to the load of the aircraft a run of 2,800 feet is required to reach V1 and VR. Indications of the flight data recorder were that the aircraft became airborne when it reached 124 kt and a 3,200 feet run. The data recorder also showed that the speed of the aircraft reached 133 kt then dropped to 124 kt when it veered left. This indicates that the aircraft was rotated more than the normal angle of attack. It is believed that the frost accretion on the wings caused the aircraft to stall soon after takeoff, whereas it would have flown safely in normal conditions. Because of the low altitude after takeoff the pilot could not recover from the stall.
Final Report:

Crash of a Fairchild F27 in Istanbul

Date & Time: Aug 18, 1972 at 0915 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-KOC
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bursa - Istanbul
MSN:
81
YOM:
1960
Flight number:
TK012
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
37
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
For unknown reasons, the airplane belly landed on runway 06/24 and slid for dozen meters before coming to rest. All 40 occupants were evacuated safely while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a Douglas C-47B-5-DK in Istanbul: 1 killed

Date & Time: Jan 14, 1965 at 1906 LT
Operator:
Registration:
CBK-04
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
14700/26145
YOM:
1944
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Circumstances:
At liftoff, the airplane went out of control and crashed in flames. A crew member, the flight mechanic, was killed.

Crash of a Douglas DC-7C in Istanbul

Date & Time: Sep 28, 1964 at 0450 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
G-ASID
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
London – Istanbul – Singapore
MSN:
45161/757
YOM:
1957
Flight number:
CA355
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
89
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
9530
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1811
Aircraft flight hours:
20668
Circumstances:
Flight 355 took off from London for a flight to Singapore via Istanbul. The first approach to Istanbul runway 24 was abandoned because the pilot-in-command couldn't see the runway lights. Heavy rain continued as the pilot approached for the second time. VHF communications were lost during a short period of time because of a power failure in the tower transmitter and was restored when the plane was in the procedure turn. Lightning and heavy turbulence were reported during the descent and the runway was sighted when descending to 500 feet. The pilot made a slight correction to the right and ordered full flaps and power reduction to 20" boost. The plane sank quickly just short of the runway and more power was ordered, but the left main gear had struck the ground in line with the runway, 72 m short of the threshold. The plane bounced and touched down again 14 m further on. The left main gear as well as nose gear collapsed, causing the no. 1 and 2 engines to break off, followed by the entire left wing. The fuselage skidded 260 m down the runway and a fire developed.
Probable cause:
During the last approach, the pilot was too early in selecting full flap and reducing the power. Due to heavy rain and poor visibility, the height could not be controlled precisely. The order for full power was given too late; this created the undershoot condition.
Final Report: