Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I in Whitsunday Island

Date & Time: Jan 28, 2016 at 1518 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
VH-WTY
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Hamilton Island - Whitsunday Island
MSN:
208-0522
YOM:
2010
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
10
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
1350
Captain / Total hours on type:
230.00
Aircraft flight hours:
1510
Circumstances:
On 28 January 2016 the pilot of a Cessna Aircraft Company Caravan 208 amphibian aircraft, registered VH-WTY (WTY) was conducting a series of charter flights in the Whitsunday region of Queensland. The pilot was conducting his third flight of the day when the aircraft departed Hamilton Island Airport at about 1415 Eastern Standard Time with 10 passengers on board. The tour included a scenic flight over the Great Barrier Reef for about 50 minutes before heading to Chance Bay, on the south-east tip of Whitsunday Island, about 11 km north east of Hamilton Island Airport. Following a water landing at Chance Bay, the group was to spend 90 minutes at the beach before a short flight back to Hamilton Island. The tour was originally planned to include a landing at Whitehaven Beach, however wind conditions at the time required the water landing be altered to Chance Bay. Radar surveillance data showed WTY approach Whitsunday Island from the north and conduct an orbit about 2 km north of Whitehaven Beach at about 1510, before heading toward Whitehaven Beach. WTY flew over the southern end of Whitehaven Beach and the strip of land that separates it from Chance Bay. At about 1515, after crossing Chance Bay beach in a southerly direction, WTY descended below radar surveillance for the remainder of the flight. The pilot advised that he flew WTY over the western end of Chance Bay’s main beach in order to conduct a visual pre-landing check of the bay. The pilot noted the positions of various vessels moored in the bay to determine the best taxi path to the beach. During this fly-over, the pilot also noted the sea state and observed evidence of wind gusts on the water surface. The pilot then initiated a right downwind turn toward the landing area. The approach was from the south with the intent to land in the most suitable location within the designated landing area and then taxi to the beach. The pilot reported setting up for landing at about 50 ft above the water and then delayed the landing in order to fly through an observed wind gust. Passenger video footage indicated that, during the subsequent landing, WTY bounced three times on the surface of the water. After the second bounce, with WTY getting closer to the beach and terrain, the pilot increased engine power and initiated a go-around. The third bounce, which occurred almost immediately after the second, was the most pronounced and resulted in the aircraft rebounding about 30 to 50 ft above the water. While increasing power, the pilot perceived that the torque was indicating red, suggesting an over-torque for the selected propeller configuration. Noticing that the climb performance was less than expected with the flaps at 30˚, the pilot stopped increasing power and reduced the flap to 20˚. As the aircraft climbed straight ahead towards a saddle, climb performance was still below the pilot’s expectations and he assessed that WTY would not clear the terrain. In response, the pilot turned right to avoid the surrounding rising terrain. WTY clipped trees during this turn, before colliding with terrain and coming to rest in dense scrub about 150 m from the eastern end of the main beach, near the top of the ridge. The pilot promptly advised the passengers to exit and move away from the aircraft. Some of the 11 people on board suffered minor injuries but all were able to quickly leave the aircraft. There was no post-impact fire. The aircraft’s fixed emergency beacon self-activated during the collision with terrain and was detected by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), resulting in a search and rescue response being initiated by the Joint Rescue Coordination Centre (JRCC) Australia. The pilot reported also activating his personal locator beacon, however this was not detected by AMSA. In addition, the pilot used the company satellite phone to advise the operator of the occurrence and current status of all on board. At about the same time, several witnesses who were located in Chance Bay made their way to the aircraft before assisting everyone down to the beach. A tourist boat was utilized to transfer the pilot and passengers to Hamilton Island, arriving at about 1600. From there, one passenger was transferred by helicopter to Mackay for further treatment.
Probable cause:
From the evidence available, the following findings are made with respect to the collision with terrain involving amphibian Cessna Aircraft Company C208 Caravan aircraft, registered VH-WTY that occurred at Chance Bay, 11 km north-east of Hamilton Island airport, Queensland, on 28 January 2016. These findings should not be read as apportioning blame or liability to any particular organisation or individual.
Contributing factors:
- The aircraft's initial touches with water were past the nominated decision point and beyond the northern boundary of the ALA, which reduced the safety margins available for a successful water landing or go-around.
- The pilot initiated a go-around without using all available power and the optimal speed, turned towards higher terrain and placed the aircraft in a down-wind situation, which ultimately resulted in the collision with terrain.
Other findings:
- The aircraft was equipped with lap-sash seatbelts, which have been demonstrated to reduce injury, and the use of emergency beacons and satellite phone facilitated a timely response to the accident.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I in the Laguna de Tres Palos

Date & Time: Oct 24, 2014 at 1600 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
XA-WET
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Laguna de Tres Palos - Acapulco
MSN:
208-0294
YOM:
1998
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
5240
Captain / Total hours on type:
201.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
23837
Aircraft flight hours:
1760
Aircraft flight cycles:
1105
Circumstances:
The crew departed Laguna de Tres Palos on a positioning flight to the Acapulco-General Juan N. Álvarez International Airport. During the takeoff procedure, the seaplane started to oscillate from left to right. At a speed of about 45 knots, the crew abandoned the takeoff procedure when the aircraft nosed down, plunged into water and came to rest, inverted and submerged. Both pilots evacuated safely while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Loss of control of the aircraft during a takeoff run from a watery surface due to cross winds.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I Near Lydenburg: 3 killed

Date & Time: Jun 17, 2014 at 1030 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
3006
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Schedule:
Sabi Sabi - Lydenburg
MSN:
208-00136
YOM:
1988
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
3
Circumstances:
The single engine aircraft was completing a training flight from Sabi Sabi to Lydenburg on behalf of the 41st Squadron. While descending to Lydenburg, the aircraft crashed in a mountainous area near the Long Tom Pass. Two passengers were seriously injured while three other occupants were killed.

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I in N'Gaoundéré: 1 killed

Date & Time: Jun 10, 2013 at 1000 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TT-BAU
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Moundou - Douala
MSN:
208-0045
YOM:
1985
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Circumstances:
The single engine aircraft departed Moundou (Chad) on a flight to Douala, Cameroon, carrying three passengers and two pilots on behalf of CotonTchad, the Chadian National Coton Company (Société Cotonnière du Tchad). En route, the crew informed ATC about engine problems and elected to divert to N'Gaoundéré Airport. On final approach, the aircraft stalled and crashed in a marshy field located near the airport. All five occupants were injured, both crew seriously. Few hours later, the captain died from his injuries. The aircraft was destroyed.
Probable cause:
Engine trouble for unknown reasons.

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I in Kei Mouth

Date & Time: Jul 23, 2011
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
3009
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Swartkop AFB - Kei Mouth
MSN:
208-0159
YOM:
1989
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
On final approach to Kei Mouth Airport in the Eastern Cape Province, the single engine aircraft crashed in unknown circumstances. While both occupants were uninjured, the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. The crew was completing a positioning flight from Swartkop AFB.

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I in Sheffield

Date & Time: Sep 15, 2009 at 1435 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N336DN
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Farmingdale - Saratoga Springs
MSN:
208-0001
YOM:
1985
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
3100
Captain / Total hours on type:
25.00
Aircraft flight hours:
10182
Circumstances:
The pilot and the five passengers, who were employees of an industrial services company, were returning from a job site with hazardous materials used for blasting operations. The airplane was in a climb, at an altitude of 8,500 feet, when it experienced a catastrophic engine failure. The pilot declared an emergency and subsequently performed a forced landing to a field. During the landing, the airplane's right wing struck a tree and separated. All occupants exited the airplane without injury; however, the airplane became fully engulfed in fire, which consumed the majority of the airplane. The airplane was equipped with a turbine engine that, at the time of the accident, had been operated for about 7,620 hours since new and 65 hours since it was overhauled about 19 months prior to the accident. Impact damage was observed to the interior of the engine exhaust duct. In addition, the exhaust duct contained portions of a fractured power turbine blade. Additional examination of the engine revealed damage consistent with a distressed 1st stage sun gear, and associated compressor turbine and power turbine damage. Examination of the sun gear teeth output splines revealed that they were too damaged to determine the cause of their deterioration. It was noted that the sun gear found on the accident engine was previously removed from another engine due to "spalled gear teeth" about 7 years prior to the accident. The condition of the sun gear when installed on the accident engine could not be determined.
Probable cause:
A total loss of engine power due to a failure of the 1st stage sun gear output splines for unknown reasons, which resulted in a power turbine overspeed condition, with subsequent blade distress/release.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan I in Intuto

Date & Time: Jan 9, 2009 at 1315 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
EP-858
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Intuto - Iquitos
MSN:
208-0246
YOM:
1996
Location:
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
6
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from the Tigre River in Intuto, the single engine seaplane stalled and crashed. All 8 occupants were injured and the aircraft was destroyed.