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Crash of a Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in Manaus

Date & Time: Sep 16, 2019 at 1226 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PT-MHC
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Manaus - Maués
MSN:
208B-0543
YOM:
1996
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
8
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport in rainy conditions, the single engine airplane lost height and crashed in a wooded area located near the airfield. All 10 occupants were evacuated to local hospital and the aircraft was destroyed.

Crash of a Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in Manaus

Date & Time: May 22, 2018 at 0940 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PT-FLW
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Manaus - Manaus
MSN:
208B-0451
YOM:
1995
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The pilot, sole on board, was completing a positioning flight from Manaus-Eduardo Gomes International Airport. On final approach to runway 11, the single engine aircraft crashed in a wasteland and came to rest in flammes about 350 meters from the runway threshold. The pilot was rescued and the aircraft was destroyed by fire.

Crash of a Cessna 208A Caravan I near Manaus: 1 killed

Date & Time: Oct 17, 2017 at 1050 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PR-MPE
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
208A-0510
YOM:
2009
Location:
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
4
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Circumstances:
The single engine aircraft was engaged in a local survey flight on behalf of Greenpeace Brazil. Upon landing on the Rio Negro area located in the Anavilhanas National Park, the airplane struck the water surface and crashed upside down before coming to rest partially submerged. The pilot and three passengers were rescued while a fourth passenger was killed. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. Did the pilot raise the gear prior to landing ?

Crash of a Cessna 208 Caravan in Manaus: 1 killed

Date & Time: Feb 28, 2012 at 0716 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PT-PTB
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Manaus-Manaus
MSN:
208-0766
YOM:
1999
Location:
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Circumstances:
The pilot was performing a positionning flight from Manaus-Aeroclube de Flores Airport to the international Airport of Manaus-Eduardo Gomes. Shortly after take off from a 860 metres long runway, the single engine aircraft did not gain sufficient altitude. It hit an electric pole and stalled before crashing in a wooded area near the airport. The pilot, sole occupant, was killed. The aircraft owned by CTA - Cleiton Taxi Aéreo was destroyed by impact forces.

Crash of a Learjet 35A in Manaus

Date & Time: Mar 7, 2010 at 1535 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PT-LJK
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Palm Beach – Aguadilla – Manaus – Rio de Janeiro
MSN:
35-372
YOM:
1981
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
4
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
6240
Captain / Total hours on type:
754.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1095
Copilot / Total hours on type:
410
Circumstances:
The aircraft was completing an ambulance flight from Palm Beach to Rio de Janeiro with intermediate stops in Aguadilla and Manaus, carrying one patient, a medical team and two pilots. During the takeoff roll from 10 at Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport, just before V1 speed, the crew heard a loud noise coming from the right side of the airplane. In the mean time, the aircraft started to deviate to the right. The captain decided to abandon the takeoff procedure and initiated a braking maneuver. Unable to stop within the remaining distance, the aircraft overran and came to rest 400 metres past the runway end. All six occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damage beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The following findings were identified:
- The external tyre on the right main gear deflated during the takeoff roll,
- The crew retarded the power levers and deployed the spoilers,
- The crew did not use the parachute, judging the relative low speed and thinking this was an optional equipment,
- Technical analysis on the right main gear revealed that the six bolts on the external wheel torque were approximately 90% lower than foreseen, which may contributed to the tyre deflection.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna C-98B Grand Caravan near Aldeias Aurélio: 2 killed

Date & Time: Oct 29, 2009 at 0915 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
2725
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Cruzeiro do Sul – Tabatinga
MSN:
208B-0534
YOM:
1996
Country:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
7
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The single engine aircraft departed Cruzeiro do Sul on a special flight to Tabatinga, carrying 7 passengers and a crew of four taking part to a support mission of vaccination for the Ministry of Health. En route, the crew encountered technical problems and elected to make an emergency landing when the aircraft crashed between the villages of Aldeias Aurélio and Rio Novo, in the Rio Ituí, a tributary of the Rio Javari. Two passengers were killed while 9 other occupants were rescued a day later.

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante off Santo Antônio: 24 killed

Date & Time: Feb 7, 2009 at 1324 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-SEA
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Coari - Manaus
MSN:
110-352
YOM:
1981
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
26
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
24
Captain / Total flying hours:
18870
Captain / Total hours on type:
7795.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1011
Copilot / Total hours on type:
635
Aircraft flight hours:
12686
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Coari Airport at 1240LT on a charter flight to Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport, carrying 26 passengers and two pilots. About 30 minutes into the flight, while cruising at FL115, the crew informed ATC that the left engine failed and elected to divert to the unused Manacapuru Airfield. While approaching runway 08, the aircraft rolled to the left to an angle of 30° then crashed in the Rio Manacapuru. 24 people were killed while 4 passengers were slightly injured.
Probable cause:
The following factors were identified:
- At takeoff from Coari Airport, the total weight of the aircraft was 6,414 kg, which means 744 kg over the MTOW,
- On board were 26 passengers including 8 children while the aircraft was certified for 19 passengers,
- The left engine fuel pump was completely burnt during the accident but it could not be determined if it failed during the flight or not,
- The crew was not sufficiently trained for emergency situations,
- Poor work organisation,
- Lack of supervision from the operator concerning crew's decisions before and during flights,
- Poor crew coordination,
- Lack of crew communication,
- Non compliance with management techniques,
- Incomplete execution of the actions provided by the emergency checklist.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante in Coari

Date & Time: Apr 21, 2008 at 1500 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-OCV
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Manaus – Carauari
MSN:
110-359
YOM:
1981
Location:
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
16442
Captain / Total hours on type:
2519.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1132
Copilot / Total hours on type:
364
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport on a flight to Carauari, carrying 15 passengers and two pilots. About 50 minutes into the flight, while cruising at an altitude of 8,500 feet, the right engine failed. The crew elected several times to restart it but without success. After the crew informed ATC about his situation, he was cleared to divert to Coari Airport located about 37 km from his position. Because the aircraft was overloaded and one engine was inoperative, the crew was approaching Coari Airport runway 28 with a speed higher than the reference speed. The aircraft landed too far down the runway, about 700 metres past the runway 28 threshold (runway 28 is 1,600 metres long). After touchdown, directional control was lost. The airplane veered off runway to the left and while contacting a drainage ditch, the undercarriage were torn off and the aircraft came to rest 20 metres further. All 17 occupants were evacuated, among them nine were injured. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The failure of the right engine was the result of the failure of the fuel pump due to poor maintenance and a possible use beyond prescribed limits. The presence of iron oxide inside and outside the fuel pump as well as the lack of cleanliness of the internal components indicates a probable lack of maintenance. When the right engine stopped running, the generator No. 1 was then responsible for powering the aircraft's electrical system. As the latter was not in good working order, the primary generator could not withstand the overload and ceased to function, leaving only the battery to power the entire electrical system. To maintain power to critical systems, the crew would have had to select the backup power system. Since after the engine stopped, there was no monitoring of the electrical system, the pilots only realized the failure of the electrical system when they attempted to extend the landing gears. The emergency hydraulic system was then used to lower the gears, after which the crew did not return the system selection valve to the 'normal' position, resulting in the brakes and the steering systems to be inoperative after landing. The chain of failures may be associated with not reading the checklist when performing procedures after the engine failure.
The following contributing factors were identified:
- Poor flight preparation,
- The crew failed to follow the SOP's, and took the decision to initiate the flight with an aircraft that was overloaded by 503 kilos,
- When the emergency situation presented itself to the crew, they failed to follow the checklist,
- On an organizational level, the company did not have an effective personnel training system in place, so that the crew did not have sufficient skills to respond to emergency situations,
- Because the aircraft was overloaded and that one engine was inoperative, the crew was forced to complete the approach with a speed higher than the reference speed,
- An improper use of the controls allowed the aircraft to land 700 meters past the runway 28 threshold, reducing the landing distance available,
- The crew focused their attention on the failure of the right engine and did not identify the failure of the electrical system, which delayed their tasks assignment, all made worse by the failure to comply with the checklist,
- The operations cleared the crew to start the flight despite the fact that the aircraft was overloaded on takeoff based on weight and balance documents,
- The crew did not prepare the flight according to published procedures and did not consider the total weight of the aircraft in relation to the number of passengers on board and the volume of fuelin the tanks, which resulted in an aircraft to be overloaded by 503 kilos and contributed to the failure of the right engine,
- A lack of maintenance on the part of the operator.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 707-330C in Manaus

Date & Time: Oct 23, 2004 at 0840 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PP-BSE
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Manaus – São Paulo
MSN:
19317
YOM:
1967
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
9487
Captain / Total hours on type:
6600.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
14180
Copilot / Total hours on type:
3180
Aircraft flight hours:
95933
Circumstances:
Ready for takeoff on runway 10 at Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport, the crew released brakes and increased engine power when a loud noise was heard coming from the right side of the aircraft. The captain decided to reject takeoff and applied brakes when the aircraft started to deviate to the right. It veered off runway and came to rest. All three crew members escaped uninjured while the aircraft was considered as damaged beyond repair after the right main gear punctured the wing.
Probable cause:
The right main gear collapsed during takeoff following a structural failure caused by the presence of fatigue cracks that were not detected by the maintenance crew because of poor maintenance. The aircraft already suffered an accident in Guarulhos Airport, causing damages to the right main gear.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-120ER Brasília near Manaus: 33 killed

Date & Time: May 14, 2004 at 1835 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PT-WRO
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
São Paulo de Olivença – Tabatinga – Tefé – Manaus
MSN:
120-070
YOM:
1988
Flight number:
RLE4815
Location:
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
30
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
33
Captain / Total flying hours:
19069
Captain / Total hours on type:
5819.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
11927
Copilot / Total hours on type:
4637
Circumstances:
While descending to Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport following an uneventful flight from Tefé, the aircraft was correctly established on the ILS when the crew was instructed by ATC to initiate a go-around and to follow a holding pattern as the priority was given to an ambulance flight. The crew made a left turn heading 060° and continued the descent after passing 2,000 feet when the aircraft struck the ground and crashed about 33 km from the airport. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 33 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
Controlled flight into terrain after the crew continued the descent below 2,000 feet until the aircraft impacted ground. The following contributing factors were identified:
- The crew reported his altitude at 2,000 feet while the real altitude of the airplane was 1,300 feet,
- The crew continued the descent until final impact,
- The crew did not react to the GPWS alarm that sounded four times when the aircraft reached the altitude of 400 feet,
- No corrective action was taken by the crew,
- Lack of crew coordination,
- Poor approach planning that led the aircraft descending to a critical altitude,
- Lack of supervision,
- Operational deficiencies.
Final Report: