Country
code

Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت)

Crash of a Beechcraft 350i Super King Air in Islamabad: 19 killed

Date & Time: Jul 30, 2019 at 1400 LT
Operator:
Registration:
766
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Chaklala - Chaklala
MSN:
FL-766
YOM:
2011
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
19
Circumstances:
The twin engine airplane departed Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB with five crew members on board for a local training flight. In unknown circumstances, it went out of control and crashed in flames onto several houses located in the suburb of Mora Kalu, about 10 km south of Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB, Islamabad. The aircraft and several houses were destroyed. All five crew members as well as 14 people on the ground were killed.

Crash of a Lockheed C-130E Hercules at Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB

Date & Time: Nov 9, 2018 at 1438 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
4180
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Chaklala - Chaklala
MSN:
4180
YOM:
1966
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a local training flight at Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB in Islamabad. Upon touchdown, a tyre burst and the airplane went out of control. It veered off runway to the right and collided with a concrete wall before coming to rest in flames. All nine occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was destroyed by a post crash fire. It is believed that the landing was hard.

Crash of a Boeing 737-236 in Islamabad: 127 killed

Date & Time: Apr 20, 2012 at 1840 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BKC
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Islamabad
MSN:
23167/1074
YOM:
1984
Flight number:
BHO213
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
121
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
127
Captain / Total flying hours:
10158
Captain / Total hours on type:
2027.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2832
Copilot / Total hours on type:
750
Aircraft flight hours:
46933
Aircraft flight cycles:
37824
Circumstances:
On 20th April, 2012, M/s Bhoja Air Boeing 737-236A Reg # AP-BKC was scheduled to fly domestic Flight BHO-213 from Jinnah International Airport (JIAP) Karachi to Benazir Bhutto International Airport (BBIAP) Islamabad. The aircraft had 127 souls onboard including 06 flight crew members. The Mishap Aircraft (MA) took off for Islamabad at 1705 hrs Pakistan Standard Time (PST) from Karachi. The reported weather at Islamabad was thunderstorm with gusty winds. During approach for landing at BBIAP, Islamabad (OPRN), Flight BHO-213 was cleared by Islamabad Approach Radar for an Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach for Runway 30. The MA, while established on ILS (aligned with Runway 30 at prescribed altitude), at 6 miles to touchdown was asked by the Approach Radar to change over to Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tower frequency for final landing clearance. The cockpit crew came on ATC Tower frequency and flight was cleared to land at BBIAP, Islamabad, but the cockpit crew did not respond to the landing clearance call. The ATC Tower repeated the clearance but there was no response. After a few minutes, a call from a local resident was received in ATC Tower, stating that an aircraft had crashed close to Hussain Abad (A population around 4 nm short of runway 30 BBIAP, Islamabad). It was later confirmed that Flight BHO-213 had crashed and all 127 souls onboard (121 passengers + 6 flight crew) had sustained fatal injuries along with complete destruction of aircraft.
Probable cause:
Factors Leading to the Accident:
- The aircraft accident took place as a result of combination of various factors which directly and indirectly contributed towards the causation of accident. The primary causes of accident include, ineffective management of the basic flight parameters such as airspeed, altitude, descent rate attitude, as well as thrust management. The contributory factors include the crew’s decision to continue the flight through significant changing winds associated with the prevailing weather conditions and the lack of experience of the crew to the airplane’s automated flight deck.
- The reasons of ineffective management of the automated flight deck also include Bhoja Air’s incorrect induction of cockpit crew having experience of semi automated aircraft, inadequate cockpit crew simulator training and absence of organizational cockpit crew professional competence and monitoring system.
- The incorrect decision to continue for the destination and not diverting to the alternate aerodrome despite the presence of squall line and very small gaps observed by the Captain between the active weather cells is also considered a contributory factor in causation of the accident.
- The operator’s Ops Manual (CAA Pakistan approved) clearly states to avoid active weather cells by 5 to 10 nm which was violated by the cockpit crew is also considered a contributory factor in causation of the accident.
- FO possessed average professional competence level and was due for his six monthly recurrent simulator training for Boeing 737-200 aircraft (equipped with a semi-automated flight deck). Bhoja Air requested an extension for his recurrent simulator training on 07th March, 2012. As per the existing laid down procedures of CAA Pakistan, two months extension was granted for recurrent simulator training on 09th March, 2012. The extension was granted for Boeing 737-200 aircraft, whereas the newly inducted Boeing 737-236A aircraft was equipped with automated flight deck. It is important to note that Bhoja Air did not know this vital piece of information till their cockpit crew went for simulator training to South Africa. This critical information regarding automation of the newly inducted Boeing 737-236A was not available with Flight Standard Directorate CAA, Pakistan as the information was not provided by the Bhoja Air Management.
- Therefore it is observed that due to the ignorance of Bhoja Air Management and CAA Pakistan, the said extension in respect of FO for simulator training was initially requested by former and subsequently approved by the latter. This resulted in absence of variance type training conformance of FO because of which he did not contribute positively in recovering the aircraft out of unsafe set of conditions primarily due to lack of automation knowledge, proper training and relying on captain to take remedial actions. This is also considered as one of the contributory factors in causation of accident.
- The Captain’s airline flying experience on semi automated flight deck aircraft and his selection for automated aircraft without subsequent training and monitoring to enhance his professional competence and skill, is one of the factors in causation of the accident.
- None of the cockpit crew member challenged the decision of each other to continue for the destination despite violation of Ops Manual instructions which is against the essence of CRM training.
- After experiencing the extremely adverse weather conditions, the cockpit crew neither knew nor carried out the Boeing recommended QRH and FCOM / Ops Manual procedures to handle the abnormal set of conditions / situations due to non availability of customized Boeing documents for Boeing 737-236A (advanced version of Boeing 737-200 series).

Finalization:
- The ineffective automated flight deck management in extreme adverse weather conditions by cockpit crew caused the accident. The ineffective automated flight deck management was due to various factors including; incorrect selection of cockpit crew on account of their inadequate flying experience, training and competence level for Boeing 737-236A (advanced version of Boeing 737-200 series), absence of formal simulator training in respect of FO for handling an automated flight deck, non-existence of cockpit crew professional competence / skill level monitoring system at operator level (Bhoja Air).
- The cockpit crew incorrect decision to continue the flight for destination and non- adherence to Boeing recommended QRH and FCOM remedial actions / procedures due to non-availability of customized aircraft documents (at Bhoja Air) for Boeing 737-236A (advanced version of Boeing 737-200 series) contributed towards the causation of accident. The inability of CAA Pakistan to ensure automated flight deck variance type training and monitoring requirements primarily due to incorrect information provided by the Bhoja Air Management was also a contributory factor in causation of the accident.
Final Report:

Crash of an Airbus A321-231 in Islamabad: 152 killed

Date & Time: Jul 28, 2010 at 0941 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJB
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Islamabad
MSN:
1218
YOM:
2000
Flight number:
ABQ202
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
146
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
152
Captain / Total flying hours:
25497
Captain / Total hours on type:
1060.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1837
Copilot / Total hours on type:
286
Aircraft flight hours:
34018
Aircraft flight cycles:
13566
Circumstances:
Flight ABQ202, operated by Airblue, was scheduled to fly a domestic flight sector Karachi - Islamabad. The aircraft had 152 persons on board, including six crew members. The Captain of aircraft was Captain Pervez Iqbal Chaudhary. Mishap aircraft took-off from Karachi at 0241 UTC (0741 PST) for Islamabad. At time 0441:08, while executing a circling approach for RWY-12 at Islamabad, it flew into Margalla Hills, and crashed at a distance of 9.6 NM, on a radial 334 from Islamabad VOR. The aircraft was completely destroyed and all souls on board the aircraft, sustained fatal injuries.
Probable cause:
- Weather conditions indicated rain, poor visibility and low clouds in and around the airport. The information regarding prevalent weather and the required type of approach on arrival was in the knowledge of aircrew.
- Though aircrew Captain was fit to undertake the flight on the mishap day, yet his portrayed behavior and efficiency was observed to have deteriorated with the inclement weather at BBIAP Islamabad.
- The chain of events leading to the accident in fact started with the commencement of flight, where Captain was heard to be confusing BBIAP Islamabad with JIAP Karachi while planning FMS, and Khanpur Lake (Wah) with Kahuta area during holding pattern. This state continued when Captain of the mishap flight violated the prescribed Circling Approach procedure for RWY-12; by descending below MDA (i.e 2,300 ft instead of maintaining 2,510 ft), losing visual contact with the airfield and instead resorting to fly the non-standard self created PBD based approach, thus transgressing out of protected airspace of maximum of 4.3 NM into Margallas and finally collided with the hills.
- Aircrew Captain not only clearly violated the prescribed procedures for circling approach but also did not at all adhere to FCOM procedures of displaying reaction / response to timely and continuous terrain and pull up warnings (21 times in 70 seconds) – despite these very loud, continuous and executive commands, the Captain failed to register the urgency of the situation and did not respond in kind (break off / pull off).
- F/O simply remained a passive bystander in the cockpit and did not participate as an effective team member failing to supplement / compliment or to correct the errors of his captain assertively in line with the teachings of CRM due to Captain’s behavior in the flight.
- At the crucial juncture both the ATC and the Radar controllers were preoccupied with bad weather and the traffic; the air traffic controller having lost visual contact with the aircraft got worried and sought Radar help on the land line (the ATC does not have a Radar scope); the radar controller having cleared aircraft to change frequency to ATC, got busy with the following traffic. Having been alerted by the ATC, the Radar controller shifted focus to the mishap aircraft – seeing the aircraft very close to NFZ he asked the ATCO (on land line) to ask the aircraft to immediately turn left, which was transmitted. Sensing the gravity of the situation and on seeing the aircraft still heading towards the hills, the Radar controller asked the ATCO on land line “Confirm he has visual contact with the ground. If not, then ask him to immediately climb, and make him execute missed approach”. The ATCO in quick succession asked the Captain if he had contact with the
airfield – on receiving no reply from aircrew the ATCO on Radars prompting asked if he had contact with the ground. Aircrew announced visual contact with the ground which put ATS at ease.
Ensuing discussion and mutual situational update (on land line) continued and, in fact, the ATC call “message from Radar immediately turn left” was though transmitted, but by the time the call got transmitted, the aircraft had crashed at the same time.
- The accident was primarily caused by the aircrew who violated all established procedures for a visual approach for RWY-12 and ignored several calls by ATS Controllers and EGPWS system warnings (21) related to approaching rising terrain and PULL UP.
Final Report:

Ground fire of a Lockheed C-130 Hercules at Chaklala AFB

Date & Time: Sep 10, 1998
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
23491
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
3701
YOM:
1962
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
While parked at Chaklala AFB, the aircraft was destroyed by fire after being struck by another Pakistan Air Force Hercules C-130. The aircraft was empty at the time of the accident.

Ground accident of a Lockheed C-130B Hercules at Chaklala AFB: 5 killed

Date & Time: Sep 10, 1998
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
24143
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Chaklala - Chaklala
MSN:
3781
YOM:
1963
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Circumstances:
The crew was engaged in a local post maintenance test flight. While taxiing, the crew lost control of the airplane that collided with a parked Pakistan Air Force C-130. A major fire occurred, destroying both aircraft. All five crew members were killed while the second aircraft was empty.
Probable cause:
It is believed that the loss of control was the consequence of brakes failure (brakes overheated).

Crash of a Lockheed L-382B-4C Hercules near Chaklala AFB: 22 killed

Date & Time: Apr 30, 1968
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
64145
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
4145
YOM:
1966
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
18
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
22
Circumstances:
While cruising in clouds, the airplane went out of control, dove into the ground and crashed in a huge explosion near the Chaklala Airbase. All 22 occupants were killed, most of them civilians.
Probable cause:
It is believed the loss of control was caused by severe turbulences encountered while cruising in poor weather conditions.

Crash of a Vickers 815 Viscount in Islamabad

Date & Time: May 18, 1959
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-AJC
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
335
YOM:
1958
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
39
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
After touchdown on a wet runway due to monsoon, the airplane skidded, veered off runway and lost successively its undercarriage and its right wing before coming to rest in a drainage ditch. All 43 occupants were evacuated safely while the aircraft was written off. Brand new, it was delivered four month ago.

Crash of a Bristol 170 Freighter 31M at Chaklala AFB: 7 killed

Date & Time: Jan 29, 1959
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
S4426
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
13174
YOM:
1954
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
4
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Chaklala AFB, while in initial climb, the airplane stalled and crashed in flames, killing all seven occupants.