Crash of a Boeing 737-73V in San Andrés: 2 killed

Date & Time: Aug 16, 2010 at 0147 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HK-4682
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bogotá – San Andrés
MSN:
32416/1270
YOM:
2002
Flight number:
ARE8250
Country:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
125
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
7643
Captain / Total hours on type:
343.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1900
Copilot / Total hours on type:
800
Aircraft flight hours:
23485
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Bogotá-El Dorado Airport at 0007LT on a night schedule service to San Andres Island, carrying 125 passengers and a crew of six. While approaching San Andres-Gustavo Rojas Pinilla Airport, the crew encountered poor weather conditions. Due to heavy rain falls, the crew was informed by ATC that the visibility dropped to 4 km. On short final, flaps were selected down to 30° then the autopilot system was deactivated. After passing 500 feet on approach, the captain repeated the procedures in case of a go-around would be needed due to windshear conditions. Shortly later, the copilot shouted 'go-around' but half a second later, the airplane impacted ground 49 metres short of runway. On impact, the undercarriage and both engines were torn off. The aircraft slid for few dozen metres before coming to rest, broken in three. Two passengers were killed while 129 other occupants were injured, nine seriously.
Probable cause:
Execution of the flight below the angle of approach, due to a misjudgment of the crew, believing to be much higher, leading the aircraft to fly a typical trajectory of a 'black hole' illusion, which was experienced during the night-time approach to a runway with low contrast surrounded in bright focused lights, aggravated by bad weather of heavy rain.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 747-209BSF in Bogotá: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jul 7, 2008 at 0352 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N714CK
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bogotá – Miami
MSN:
22446/519
YOM:
1981
Country:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
8874
Captain / Total hours on type:
2874.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
11373
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2853
Aircraft flight hours:
90613
Circumstances:
Shortly after take off from Bogotá-El Dorado Airport, while climbing by night, the crew informed ATC about engine problems and was cleared for an immediate return. After the crew realized he could not make it, he attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft collided with a farm and crashed in an open field. While all 8 crew members were injured (five seriously), two people in the farm were killed. The aircraft was totally destroyed by impact forces.
Probable cause:
The inability of the accident aircraft to maintain flight after the loss of power of two engines.
The following contributing factors were identified:
A non-recoverable surge on the engine n°4 during the rotation, resulting in a loss of engine power. Contributing to the surge were the combined effects of the inefficient high pressure turbine, excessive blade-tip clearance, reduced cord of the fan blades and of the leading edges and the effects of high altitude. An undetermined anomaly in the engine n°1, which manifested itself during the extra power, resulted in loss of engine power. Contributing to the loss of engine power was inadequate n°1 operation to maintain the proper speed during the ascent of the aircraft, resulting in extra power use and, in turn, exposing the anomaly of the engine.
Final Report:

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-8-202 in Bogotá

Date & Time: Jan 28, 2008 at 2302 LT
Operator:
Registration:
HK-3997
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Maracaibo – Bogotá
MSN:
391
YOM:
1994
Flight number:
ARE053
Country:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
37
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
14992
Captain / Total hours on type:
5552.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
555
Copilot / Total hours on type:
6
Aircraft flight hours:
19565
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Maracaibo, the crew completed a night approach and landing on runway 13L at Bogotá-El Dorado Airport. After touchdown, the crew initiated the braking procedure but due to a technical issue on the left engine, the aircraft was unable to stop within the remaining distance. It overran, went through a perimeter fence and came to rest in a grassy area with its left main gear folded. All 41 occupants were evacuated, among them two passengers were seriously injured. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Carrying out a landing with an unresolved issue on the left engine, causing the aircraft to be unable to stop within the remaining distance available. The failure to correct the maintenance reports in a satisfactory manner and the failure to properly follow-up on repetitive entries were considered as contributing factors.
Final Report:

Crash of a Beechcraft B200 Super King Air in Bogotá: 7 killed

Date & Time: Oct 11, 2007 at 2022 LT
Registration:
HK-4422
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Bogotá – Leticia
MSN:
BB-377
YOM:
1978
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Captain / Total flying hours:
4088
Captain / Total hours on type:
324.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2127
Copilot / Total hours on type:
202
Aircraft flight hours:
10934
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Bogotá-El Dorado Airport runway 13L on an ambulance flight to Leticia, carrying three doctors and two pilots. Shortly after takeoff, during initial climb, the crew contacted ATC and declared an emergency. The aircraft rolled to the right then entered an uncontrolled descent and crashed onto several houses located in the Fontibón neighborhood, bursting into flames. All five occupants were killed as well as two people on the ground.
Probable cause:
The exact cause of the accident could not be determined.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 727-23F in Leticia: 6 killed

Date & Time: Nov 18, 2006 at 2107 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HK-3667X
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Bogotá – Leticia
MSN:
19430
YOM:
1966
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
6
Captain / Total flying hours:
8036
Copilot / Total flying hours:
6617
Aircraft flight hours:
66192
Circumstances:
The Boeing 727 departed Bogotá-El Dorado Airport on a night cargo flight to Leticia, carrying 3 passengers, 3 crew members and a load of 13,166 kilos of fish. While descending to Leticia-Alfredo Vásquez Cobo Airport, the crew was informed about the weather conditions at destination with a visibility down to 4 km with local patches of fog. On approach, the crew asked ATC to improve the runway lights intensity as the runway 21 is not equipped with approach lights. On short final, at a height of about 150 feet, the aircraft collided with a television antenna and crashed in a wooded area located 3,7 km short of runway 21, bursting into flames. The aircraft was totally destroyed and all six occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
Following a flight under IFR mode, the crew decided to continue the approach by night and limited visibility under VFR mode, without meeting the minimum requirements for this type of operation. This decision led the aircraft descending at an unsafe altitude until it collided with a television antenna and crashed. The following contributing factors were identified:
- Poor approach planning,
- Poor judgment,
- Violation of IFR procedures,
- The crew's inability to circumvent the obstacle on the ground by encountering unforeseen circumstances beyond their capacity.
Final Report:

Ground accident of a Boeing 727-224F in Bogotá

Date & Time: Aug 17, 2006 at 0054 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HK-3985
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bogotá – Barranquilla
MSN:
20465/814
YOM:
1970
Flight number:
KRE192
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
71978
Circumstances:
While taxiing at Bogotá-El Dorado Airport, ready for a cargo flight to Barranquilla, the aircraft suffered a technical problem with the right main gear that collapsed. All three crew members escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Failure of the right main gear during taxi due to the presence of corrosion in the trunnion.

Crash of a Swearingen SA227AC Metro III in Carepa: 5 killed

Date & Time: May 5, 2004 at 1300 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
HK-4275X
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bogotá – Carepa
MSN:
AC-676
YOM:
1987
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Aircraft flight hours:
19335
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Bogotá-El Dorado Airport, the crew started the approach to Carepa-Los Cedros Airport, the copilot was the pilot-in-command. On final approach, the captain took over controls and continued the descent when the GPWS alarm sounded seven times. For unknown reasons, the captain failed to respond to this situation and did not proceed with any corrective actions. On short final, at a height of about 200 feet, one of the engine failed. The crew failed to follow the published procedures, causing the aircraft to stall and to crash about 100 metres short of runway 33. Two passengers were seriously injured while five other occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The following findings were identified:
- Poor judgement of distance, speed, altitude and the obstacle clearance during the final approach,
- Attempting the operation beyond the experience and the high level of competence required by the crew,
- Encountering unforeseen circumstances exceeded the capacity of the crew,
- Diverting attention on the operation of the aircraft,
- Lack of approved procedures, directives and instructions,
- The absence of CRM procedures and low situational awareness,
- The lack of evasive action when the ground proximity warning system's alarm sounded,
- The sudden loss of power in one of the engines,
- The wrong use of the world's major flight to maintain directional control,
- The activation of the Stall Avoidance System (SAS) on the control column, moving it forward when the plane was at low altitude.

Crash of a Douglas DC-10-30F in Bogotá

Date & Time: Apr 28, 2004 at 0356 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N189AX
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Miami – Bogotá
MSN:
48277
YOM:
1981
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
77864
Aircraft flight cycles:
12224
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful cargo flight from Miami-Intl Airport on behalf of Lineas Aéreas Suramericanas, the crew started a night approach to Bogotá-El Dorado Airport. On final, the aircraft was unstable and too low when the GPWS alarm sounded five times. The captain increased engine power and elected to gain height, causing the aircraft to continue over the glide. At an excessive speed of 180 knots, the aircraft landed 1,500 feet past the runway 13L threshold (runway 13L is 3,800 metres long). After touchdown, the crew started the braking procedure but unable to stop within the remaining distance, the aircraft overran. It lost its undercarriage, collided with the ILS equipment, lost both engines n°1 and 3 and eventually came to rest few hundred metres further in a grassy area. All three crew members escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Departure from runway 13 left the El Dorado airport as a result of a landing with a speed of 180 knots and 1500 feet from the threshold, during which the spoilers were not used and in which there was hydroplaning by the main landing gear making the braking action less than expected. The decision of the crew to continue the approach despite the fact that this was not stabilized in accordance with the criteria described in the manual of operations of the airline. The omission of points in the checklist and call out from the crew that resulted in a lower alert situation facing the parameters of the approach and monitoring the operation of key systems such as the extension of spoilers after the landing. The non-response to the ground proximity warning system that is sounded for at least five times during the final approach in two different modes.

Crash of a Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in El Para: 2 killed

Date & Time: Feb 13, 2003 at 0843 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N1116G
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Schedule:
Bogotá - Florencia
MSN:
208B-0402
YOM:
1994
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The single engine aircraft was completing a survey flight over the Florencia area on behalf of the US Government, carrying four US citizens and one Colombian taking part to an anti-narcotic program. Eight minutes prior to its arrival in Floriencia, while cruising at an altitude of 5,000 feet, the aircraft suffered an engine failure. The crew attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft crashed on the slope of a mountain located near El Para, bursting into flames. All five occupants survived the accident but when FARC soldiers arrived on the scene, they shot down both pilots and captured all three other occupants. The bodies of both pilots were repatriated to the US few days later while the three hostages were released more than five years later in July 2008.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the engine failed after the turbine overheated in flight.

Crash of a Casa 212 Aviocar 300 in Tres Esquinas

Date & Time: Dec 5, 2000
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
FAC-1251
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bogotá – Tres Esquinas
MSN:
450
YOM:
1991
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Bogotá on a flight to Tres Esquinas, carrying a team of engineers who were involved in the refurbishment of the runway at Tres Esquinas Airport. On final approach, the crew encountered technical problems and attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft crashed in a wooded area located 3 km short of runway. Two occupants were injured.