Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Nampula: 2 killed

Date & Time: Apr 20, 2004
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-NVD
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
404-0667
YOM:
1980
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Nampula Airport, while in initial climb, the aircraft went out of control and crashed, killing both occupants. They were engaged in a geological mission on behalf of the Mozambican government in the north part of the country.

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Jandakot: 2 killed

Date & Time: Aug 11, 2003 at 1537 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
VH-ANV
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Jandakot - Jandakot
MSN:
404-0820
YOM:
1981
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
16722
Captain / Total hours on type:
12345.00
Aircraft flight hours:
16819
Circumstances:
The aircraft took off from runway 24 right (24R) at Jandakot Airport, WA. One pilot and five passengers were on board the aircraft. The flight was being conducted in the aerial work category, under the instrument flight rules. Shortly after the aircraft became airborne, while still over the runway, the pilot recognized symptoms that he associated with a failure of the right engine and elected to continue the takeoff. The pilot retracted the landing gear, selected the wing flaps to the up position and feathered the propeller of the right engine. The pilot later reported that he was concerned about clearing a residential area and obstructions along the flight path ahead, including high-voltage powerlines crossing the aircraft’s flight path 2,400 m beyond the runway. The aircraft was approximately 450 m beyond the upwind threshold of runway 24R when the pilot initiated a series of left turns. Analysis of radar records indicated that during the turns, the airspeed of the aircraft reduced significantly below the airspeed required for optimum single-engine performance. The pilot transmitted to the aerodrome controller that he was returning for a landing and indicated an intention to land on runway 30. However, the airspeed decayed during the subsequent manoeuvring such that he was unable to safely complete the approach to that runway. The pilot was unable to maintain altitude and the aircraft descended into an area of scrub-type terrain, moderately populated with trees. During the impact sequence at about 1537, the outboard portion of the left wing collided with a tree trunk and was sheared off. A significant quantity of fuel was spilled from the wing’s fuel tank and ignited. An intense postimpact fire broke out in the vicinity of the wreckage and destroyed the aircraft. Four passengers and the pilot vacated the aircraft, but sustained serious burns in the process. One of those passengers died from those injuries 85 days after the accident. A fifth passenger did not survive the post-impact fire.
Probable cause:
Significant factors:
1. The material specification contained in the engineering order for replacing the pump bushing of the engine driven fuel pump (EDFP) fitted to the right engine was not appropriate.
2. High torsional loads between the EDFP’s spindle shaft and the sleeve bearing sheared the pump’s drive shaft during a critical phase of flight.
3. The reduction in fuel pressure was insufficient to sustain operation of the engine at the take-off power setting.
4. The loss of engine power occurred close to the decision speed with the landing gear extended while the aircraft was over the runway.
5. The pilot elected to continue the takeoff.
6. The aircraft was manoeuvred, including turns and banks, at low altitude resulting in a decrease in airspeed below that required to maximise one-engine inoperative performance.
7. The pilot was unable to maintain the aircraft’s altitude over terrain that was unsuitable for an emergency landing.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II near Pena Pobre: 1 killed

Date & Time: May 13, 2001 at 1933 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N404BA
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Christiansted – San Juan
MSN:
404-0237
YOM:
1978
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
1000
Captain / Total hours on type:
103.00
Aircraft flight hours:
12000
Circumstances:
The flight was being handled as a VFR aircraft by air traffic control, was given a discreet transponder code, and was radar contact at an altitude of 4,500 feet. The pilot requested a VFR descent from 4,500 feet, and was cleared to "…descend unrestricted west bound." Radar and radio contact were lost at an altitude of 2,700 feet. The controller tried to re-establish radio contact with the airplane's pilot 10 times before initiating search and rescue efforts. A U.S. Coast Guard helicopter found the wreckage, using the aircraft's emergency locator transmitter. The next day a ground search for the aircraft was halted because of hazardous terrain. Search and rescue personnel had to be airlifted into the crash site to remove the victim. A police helicopter was vectored to the crash site by ATC about an 1 1/2 hours after contact was lost with the flight, and the pilot reported that he could not fly near the crash site because of fog. He reported the ceiling about 2,400 feet. The aircraft impacted in heavily wooded, mountainous terrain at the 2,700-foot level of a 3,524-foot mountain. Toxicology test showed that venlafaxine and desmethylvenlafaxine drugs were found in the pilot's blood, and the levels found were consistent with the recent ingestion of more than 10 times a normal dose of venlafaxine.
Probable cause:
Failure of the pilot-in-command to maintain altitude/clearance, resulting in an in-flight collision with rising terrain.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Lansing

Date & Time: Apr 15, 2000 at 0743 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N26SA
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lansing - Caro
MSN:
404-0225
YOM:
1978
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
3600
Aircraft flight hours:
17393
Circumstances:
The pilot was departing from Lansing, Michigan, when he reported engine problems. The aircraft subsequently lost power to both engines. Fuel receipts were found that indicate that the aircraft was serviced with 25 gallons of jet fuel in each wing tank. No preexisting anomalies were found with regard to the aircraft or its systems. An FAA inspector interviewed the person that had fueled the aircraft and that person stated he had used a JET-A fuel truck to fuel the accident aircraft. The inspector also interviewed the safety director of the company that provided the fueling service. The safety director told the inspector that the fuel truck used to fuel the accident aircraft was found to have a small nozzle installed on one of the hoses and not the wide nozzle used on jet fueling trucks. He also said that, '...the small nozzle was used for the purpose of fueling tugs at the airport and that the small nozzles were immediately removed from all jet refueling trucks so that this could not happen again.'
Probable cause:
A loss of engine power due to improper fuel. Also causal was the improper aircraft service by the fixed base operator personnel and the unsuitable terrain for the forced landing encountered by the pilot. Factors were the improper grade of fuel and the lack of suitable terrain for the landing.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Guadalajara: 5 killed

Date & Time: Jan 25, 2000 at 1225 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
XC-AA91
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Guadalajara - Uruapan
MSN:
404-0451
YOM:
1979
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Guadalajara-Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Airport on a flight to Uruapan, carrying three engineers and two pilots. Shortly after takeoff from runway 28, while in initial climb, the aircraft lost height and crashed. All five occupants were killed.

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Glasgow: 8 killed

Date & Time: Sep 3, 1999 at 1236 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
G-ILGW
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Glasgow – Aberdeen
MSN:
404-0690
YOM:
1980
Flight number:
Saltire 3W
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
8
Captain / Total flying hours:
4190
Captain / Total hours on type:
173.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2033
Copilot / Total hours on type:
93
Aircraft flight hours:
6532
Circumstances:
The aircraft had been chartered to transport an airline crew of nine persons from Glasgow to Aberdeen. The aircraft was crewed by two pilots and, so far as could be determined, its take-off weight was between 8,320 and 8,600 lb. The maximum permitted take-off weight was 8,400 lb. ATC clearance for an IFR departure was obtained before the aircraft taxied from the business aviation apron for take-off from runway 23, with a take-off run available of 2,658 metres. According to survivors, the take-off proceeded normally until shortly after the aircraft became airborne when they heard a thud or bang. The aircraft was then seen by external witnesses at low height, to the left of the extended runway centerline, in a wings level attitude that later developed into a right bank and a gentle descent. Witnesses reported hearing an engine spluttering and saw at least one propeller rotating slowly. There was a brief 'emergency' radio transmission from the commander and the aircraft was seen entering a steep right turn. It then entered a dive. A witness saw the wings levelled just before the aircraft struck the ground on a northerly track. Three survivors were helped from the wreckage by a nearby farm worker before flames from a severe post-impact fire engulfed the cabin.
Probable cause:
The following causal factors were identified:
- The left engine suffered a catastrophic failure of its accessory gear train leading to a progressive but complete loss of power from that engine,
- The propeller of the failed engine was not feathered and therefore the aircraft was incapable of climbing on the power of one engine alone,
- The commander feathered the propeller of the right-hand engine, which was mechanically capable of producing power resulting in a total loss of thrust,
- The commander attempted to return to the departure airfield but lost control of the aircraft during a turn to the right.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II on Mt Meru: 12 killed

Date & Time: Sep 1, 1999 at 1026 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5H-NAT
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Seronera Lodge - Kilimanjaro
MSN:
404-0805
YOM:
1981
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
11
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
12
Captain / Total flying hours:
16500
Captain / Total hours on type:
2000.00
Circumstances:
Two Cessna 404 Titan II operated by Northern Air departed Seronera Lodge in the mid morning on a charter flight to Kilimanjaro Airport, carrying a total of 18 US tourists and two pilots (7 passengers and one pilot in the first aircraft and 11 passengers and one pilot in the second aircraft). The passengers should be later transferred from Kilimanjaro to Nairobi with an Air Kenya aircraft. After takeoff, the pilot in the first Cessna warned the second pilot about the lack of visibility in the area. While cruising in marginal weather conditions at an altitude of 8,770 feet, the second aircraft struck the southern slope of Mt Meru (4,565 metres high). The wreckage was found the following day at an altitude of 2,833 metres. The aircraft was destroyed by impact forces and all 12 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
Controlled flight into terrain after the pilot failed to maintain the minimum safe altitude for the area of Mt Meru. It was determined that the pilot informed his colleague he wanted to maintain FL110 at a distance of 53 km from the first beacon but for unknown reasons, he was maintaining an insufficient altitude of 9,500 feet at a distance of 45 km from the first beacon. Investigations were unable to determine the reason why the pilot was unable to maintain the minimum safe altitude. Poor weather conditions with low clouds and drizzle was a contributing factor.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Nkayi

Date & Time: May 25, 1998
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
VH-WGH
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
404-0430
YOM:
1979
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
En route from Greece to Gaborone, Botswana, the pilot encountered technical problems when the right engine failed. He completed a belly landing in an open field. There were no casualties but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Failure of the right engine in flight for unknown reasons.