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Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante in Foz do Iguaçu

Date & Time: Jul 28, 2014 at 1500 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-TAW
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Foz do Iguaçu - Curitiba
MSN:
110-258
YOM:
1980
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
2
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Foz do Iguaçu-Cataratas Airport, while climbing, the crew reported technical problems and elected to return. The crew realized he could not make it so he attempted an emergency landing in a corn field. Upon landing, the aircraft lost its undercarriage and slid for few dozen metres before coming to rest. Among the four occupants, one passenger was slightly injured and the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante in Francistown: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jun 29, 2013 at 0700 LT
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-NVB
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Lanseria - Francistown - Lubumbashi
MSN:
110-479
YOM:
1988
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The crew was performing a cargo flight from Lanseria to Lubumbashi with an intermediate stop at Francistown Airport to refuel, and the aircraft was carrying a load of ion exchange resins for water purification. During an early morning approach, the crew encountered poor visibility due to foggy conditions, abandoned the approach and initiated a go-around procedure. During a second approach from the opposite direction, the crew informed ATC he established a visual contact with the runway when the aircraft crashed in a bushy area located some 4,6 km short of runway.

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P Bandeirante in Cascavel

Date & Time: May 19, 2010 at 0510 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-GKQ
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Sorocaba – Cascavel
MSN:
110125
YOM:
1976
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
6879
Captain / Total hours on type:
2000.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1121
Copilot / Total hours on type:
15
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Sorocaba on a cargo flight to Cascavel, carrying two pilots and a load consisting of pharmaceutical materials. On final approach in low visibility due to bad weather conditions and night, the aircraft descended below the glide and impacted the ground 700 metres short of runway 33. On impact, it lost its undercarriage then slid for 150 metres before coming to rest. Both pilots escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. Visibility at the time of the accident was 1,200 metres with mist, local patches of fog and ceiling at 100 feet. Cascavel Airport was equipped with an NDB only.
Probable cause:
Controlled flight into terrain after the crew descended too low in IMC conditions. The following contributing factors were identified:
- Visibility was below minimums,
- The crew continued the descent until the aircraft impacted ground and failed to initiate a go-around procedure,
- A probable crew fatigue,
- It is possible that the crew suffered optical illusions,
- Overconfidence on part of the captain,
- The captain did not request any assistance from the copilot during the approach procedure,
- Inexperienced, the copilot did not interfere despite dangerous flight conditions,
- Poor organizational culture,
- Deficiencies in crew training,
- Lack of crew discipline,
- Poor flight planning,
- Lack of supervision on part of the operator,
- The copilot was inexperienced on this type of aircraft.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110C Bandeirante in Senador José Porfirio: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jan 25, 2010 at 1320 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-TAF
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Belém - Senador José Porfirio
MSN:
110-103
YOM:
1976
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
8
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
12350
Captain / Total hours on type:
3887.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
701
Copilot / Total hours on type:
265
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Belém, the crew started the descent to Senador José Porfirio-Wilma Rebelo Airport in marginal weather conditions. On approach, the crew noticed an elevation of the left engine turbine temperature. The captain reduced the power on both engines and elected to make an emergency landing when the aircraft stalled and crashed in an open field located 4 km short of runway. The captain and a passenger were killed. All eight other occupants were killed, three seriously. The aircraft was destroyed.
Probable cause:
The following findings were identified:
- Weather conditions made it difficult for the crew to locate the runway;
- The crew failed to follow the emergency procedures and was unable to keep the aircraft level;
- The captain did not feather the left propeller, which resulted in increased drag and reduced aircraft speed;
- The engine maintenance did not meet the engine manufacturer's requirements;
- No technical overhaul of the left engine had been carried out despite the fact that the 12-year calendar limit set by the manufacturer had been exceeded;
- A nipple mounted on the left propeller governor was not intended for aeronautical use;
- The poor seal caused by the improper connection allowed the pressure to drop, resulting in a loss of power on the left engine;
- Poor organizational culture by the operator, which compromised the safety of the operation;
- The company did not have an effective supervision program;
- Poor judgment on part of the captain;
- Poor aircraft maintenance.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante off Santo Antônio: 24 killed

Date & Time: Feb 7, 2009 at 1324 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-SEA
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Coari - Manaus
MSN:
110-352
YOM:
1981
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
26
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
24
Captain / Total flying hours:
18870
Captain / Total hours on type:
7795.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1011
Copilot / Total hours on type:
635
Aircraft flight hours:
12686
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Coari Airport at 1240LT on a charter flight to Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport, carrying 26 passengers and two pilots. About 30 minutes into the flight, while cruising at FL115, the crew informed ATC that the left engine failed and elected to divert to the unused Manacapuru Airfield. While approaching runway 08, the aircraft rolled to the left to an angle of 30° then crashed in the Rio Manacapuru. 24 people were killed while 4 passengers were slightly injured.
Probable cause:
The following factors were identified:
- At takeoff from Coari Airport, the total weight of the aircraft was 6,414 kg, which means 744 kg over the MTOW,
- On board were 26 passengers including 8 children while the aircraft was certified for 19 passengers,
- The left engine fuel pump was completely burnt during the accident but it could not be determined if it failed during the flight or not,
- The crew was not sufficiently trained for emergency situations,
- Poor work organisation,
- Lack of supervision from the operator concerning crew's decisions before and during flights,
- Poor crew coordination,
- Lack of crew communication,
- Non compliance with management techniques,
- Incomplete execution of the actions provided by the emergency checklist.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante in Coari

Date & Time: Apr 21, 2008 at 1500 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-OCV
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Manaus – Carauari
MSN:
110-359
YOM:
1981
Location:
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
16442
Captain / Total hours on type:
2519.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1132
Copilot / Total hours on type:
364
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft departed Manaus-Eduardo Gomes Airport on a flight to Carauari, carrying 15 passengers and two pilots. About 50 minutes into the flight, while cruising at an altitude of 8,500 feet, the right engine failed. The crew elected several times to restart it but without success. After the crew informed ATC about his situation, he was cleared to divert to Coari Airport located about 37 km from his position. Because the aircraft was overloaded and one engine was inoperative, the crew was approaching Coari Airport runway 28 with a speed higher than the reference speed. The aircraft landed too far down the runway, about 700 metres past the runway 28 threshold (runway 28 is 1,600 metres long). After touchdown, directional control was lost. The airplane veered off runway to the left and while contacting a drainage ditch, the undercarriage were torn off and the aircraft came to rest 20 metres further. All 17 occupants were evacuated, among them nine were injured. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The failure of the right engine was the result of the failure of the fuel pump due to poor maintenance and a possible use beyond prescribed limits. The presence of iron oxide inside and outside the fuel pump as well as the lack of cleanliness of the internal components indicates a probable lack of maintenance. When the right engine stopped running, the generator No. 1 was then responsible for powering the aircraft's electrical system. As the latter was not in good working order, the primary generator could not withstand the overload and ceased to function, leaving only the battery to power the entire electrical system. To maintain power to critical systems, the crew would have had to select the backup power system. Since after the engine stopped, there was no monitoring of the electrical system, the pilots only realized the failure of the electrical system when they attempted to extend the landing gears. The emergency hydraulic system was then used to lower the gears, after which the crew did not return the system selection valve to the 'normal' position, resulting in the brakes and the steering systems to be inoperative after landing. The chain of failures may be associated with not reading the checklist when performing procedures after the engine failure.
The following contributing factors were identified:
- Poor flight preparation,
- The crew failed to follow the SOP's, and took the decision to initiate the flight with an aircraft that was overloaded by 503 kilos,
- When the emergency situation presented itself to the crew, they failed to follow the checklist,
- On an organizational level, the company did not have an effective personnel training system in place, so that the crew did not have sufficient skills to respond to emergency situations,
- Because the aircraft was overloaded and that one engine was inoperative, the crew was forced to complete the approach with a speed higher than the reference speed,
- An improper use of the controls allowed the aircraft to land 700 meters past the runway 28 threshold, reducing the landing distance available,
- The crew focused their attention on the failure of the right engine and did not identify the failure of the electrical system, which delayed their tasks assignment, all made worse by the failure to comply with the checklist,
- The operations cleared the crew to start the flight despite the fact that the aircraft was overloaded on takeoff based on weight and balance documents,
- The crew did not prepare the flight according to published procedures and did not consider the total weight of the aircraft in relation to the number of passengers on board and the volume of fuelin the tanks, which resulted in an aircraft to be overloaded by 503 kilos and contributed to the failure of the right engine,
- A lack of maintenance on the part of the operator.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante in Curitiba: 2 killed

Date & Time: Aug 22, 2007 at 0035 LT
Operator:
Registration:
PT-SDB
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Curitiba – Jundiaí
MSN:
110-323
YOM:
1980
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
18400
Captain / Total hours on type:
8200.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
5600
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1600
Circumstances:
After passengers were dropped at Curitiba-Afonso Pena Airport, the crew was returning to his base in Jundiaí. Shortly after takeoff from runway 11 by night and marginal weather conditions, the airplane entered clouds at an altitude of 300 feet and continued to climb. Following a left turn, the aircraft climbed to an altitude of 700 feet then entered a right turn and an uncontrolled descent until it crashed in a field located near the Guatupê Police Academy located 3 km northeast of the airport. The accident occurred two minutes after takeoff. The aircraft was totally destroyed and both pilots were killed. At the time of the accident, the visibility was poor due to the night and a cloud base at 300 feet.
Probable cause:
Loss of control during initial climb in IMC conditions after the crew suffered a spatial disorientation. The following factors were identified:
- Weather conditions were not suitable for the completion of the flight,
- The crew failed to prepare the flight according to published procedures,
- The crew failed to follow the pre-takeoff checklist,
- The copilot did not have adequate training for this type of operation,
- The captain had emotional conditions that compromised flight operations,
- The relationship between both pilots was incompatible,
- The main attitude indicator was out of service since a week and the crew referred to the emergency attitude indicator,
- Because of poor flight preparation and non observation of the pre-takeoff checklist, the captain forgot to switch on the emergency attitude indicator prior to takeoff,
- At the time of the accident, the captain had accumulated 15 hours and 22 minutes of work without rest, which is against the law,
- The captain showed overconfidence and inflexibility which weakened his performances,
- Both pilots disagreed on operations,
- The visibility was poor due to the night and the ceiling at 300 feet above ground,
- The state of complacency of the organization was characterized by a culture adaptable to internal processes, without the adoption of formal rules for the operations division and the acceptance of operating conditions incompatible with security rules and protocols, which allowed the newly hired crew to feel free to act in disagreement with the standards and regulations in force at the time of the accident,
- Performing a sharp turn to the right in IMC conditions associated with a long working day and a lack of rest,
- The level of stress of the captain due to intense fatigue generated by a high workload and an insufficient rest period,
- Poor crew discipline,
- Poor judgment of the situation,
- Poor flight planning,
- Failures in the operator's organizational processes and lack of supervision of flight operations.
Final Report:

Crash of an Embraer EMB-110P1 Bandeirante near Kandrian: 2 killed

Date & Time: Mar 30, 2007 at 0523 LT
Operator:
Registration:
P2-ALU
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Port Moresby – Hoskins – Rabaul
MSN:
110-232
YOM:
1979
Flight number:
ND304
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
4653
Captain / Total hours on type:
1253.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
4235
Copilot / Total hours on type:
610
Aircraft flight hours:
36962
Aircraft flight cycles:
43756
Circumstances:
The aircraft was refueled with 640 litres (L) of Jet-A1 (AVTUR) in preparation for an early morning departure to Hoskins, New Britain, on 30 March. On 30 March, the crew lodged a flight plan, which stated that the total fuel on board was 2,100 pounds (lbs) (1,208 L). The first sector of the planned route was from Port Moresby to Hoskins. The pilot-in-command (PIC) obtained an area forecast for the flight, which indicated that there were areas of rain and scattered cloud from 1500-5000 feet (ft), with deteriorating conditions forecast for the period between 0400-0800 hours (hrs); for their arrival at Hoskins. The forecast required 30 minutes holding fuel in addition to the flight and statutory fuel requirements. These conditions were normal for their destination at this time of the year.The aircraft departed Port Moresby at 0402, as flight number ND304 for Hoskins. It initially climbed to the planned Flight Level (FL) 140 (14,000 ft), which was 300 ft above the lowest safe altitude (LSA) on the initial RNC track between Port Moresby and Girua, an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) reporting point on the north coast of the PNG mainland. The LSA for the sector between Girua and the en-route reporting point Maran was 3,300 ft, and the PIC had planned to cruise at 9,000 ft. The sector between Maran and Hoskins was planned at 9,000 ft, with a LSA of 8,300 ft. The purpose of the flight was to transport newspapers and general freight to Hoskins and Rabaul. Flight Information Area (FIA) communications with Nadzab Flight Service used High Frequency (HF) radio, and a Very High Frequency (127.1 MHz) repeater transceiver located near the township of Popondetta. This service was usually monitored by Nadzab Flight Service during their normal hours of operation, for aircraft operating on the Girua to Hoskins track. One of the functions of the Nadzab Flight Service Unit was to record all transmissions received via the Girua repeater site. The crew made a position report, intercepted by Port Moresby Flight Service, advising that they were overhead Maran at 0506, cruising at FL 110 (11,000 ft), and gave an estimated time of arrival (ETA) Hoskins at 0540. That was 2,000 ft higher than the planned level. The position report was received by Port Moresby Flight Service, because Nadzab Flight Service had not commenced operations. It subsequently commenced operations for the day at 0540. Because Nadzab was responsible for the airspace in which ALU was operating, Port Moresby Flight Service advised Nadzab of ALU’s position report, once Nadzab opened. The Maran position report was the last recorded radio contact with the aircraft. No transmission declaring the intention to descend below FL110 was heard from the crew of ALU. No MAYDAY transmission was reported by ATS or other aircrew. When the crew of ALU failed to report their arrival at Hoskins, a search was commenced of the Hoskins aerodrome. At 0650 a DISTRESFA Search and Rescue Phase (SAR) was declared indicating the degree of apprehension held for the safety of the aircraft and its occupants. Later that morning verbal reports were received from a coastal logging company in an area east of Kandrian, that an aircraft had crashed. The wreckage of ALU was found 27 km east of Kandrian, at an elevation of 780 ft above sea level. Both crew members had not survived the impact. The wreckage was located at position 06° 11′ 39.8′′ S, 149° 52′ 58.9′′ E, and was dispersed along a 500 m wreckage trail after colliding with numerous trees and impacting the terrain. The investigation estimated the time of the accident to be about 0523.
Probable cause:
The reason the crew were unable to maintain level flight above the en-route lowest safe altitude with one engine inoperative, and subsequently impacted terrain, could not be determined.
Final Report: