Region

Crash of a Canadair CL-215-1A10 in Dervenochoria

Date & Time: Jun 26, 2016 at 1109 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
1111
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Volos - Volos
MSN:
1111
YOM:
1990
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew departed Volos-Néa Anchialos Airport in the morning on a firefighting mission over Beotia. En route, the left engine caught fire. The crew attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft crashed in a wooded area located near Dervenochoria, bursting into flames. The aircraft was destroyed by a post impact fire and both pilots escaped with minor injuries.
Probable cause:
The left engine caught fire in flight for unknown reasons.

Crash of a Canadair CL-215-1A10 in Faraklo

Date & Time: Jul 17, 2015 at 1305 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
1070
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
MSN:
1070
YOM:
1980
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew was engaged in a fire fighting mission over the Peloponnese Area when he encountered technical problems. He attempted an emergency landing when the aircraft crash landed in a hilly terrain. Both pilots escaped uninjured and the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a BAe 4100 Jetstream 41 in Rhodes

Date & Time: Feb 2, 2015 at 0736 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SX-DIA
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Heraklion – Rhodes
MSN:
41075
YOM:
1995
Flight number:
SEH100
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
11117
Captain / Total hours on type:
3574.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
3834
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1334
Aircraft flight hours:
28327
Circumstances:
The Jetstream 41 aircraft, with registration number SX-DIA, operated by “SKY EXPRESS”, took off on 2nd February 2015 at 07:00 hrs. local time from the Airport of Heraklion ‘N. Kazantzakis’, performing the scheduled flight No. ‘SEH100’, the first in the day, destined for the Airport of Rhodes ‘Diagoras’. Pre-flight checks were completed with no findings and in this flight the Captain was designated as the Pilot Flying. A 3-member crew and 16 passengers were onboard. The flight crew reported for duty one hour prior to the time of flight and proceeded with all actions as laid down in the Company manual. The flight crew was also briefed that in the area of the Airport of Rhodes the winds were S-SE at 17 kt with Wind Gust 36 kt. At 07:23:54 hrs., approximately 12 min prior to landing, in the first contact of the flight crew with the Control Tower of the Airport of Rhodes, the flight crew was briefed by the Air Traffic Controller (ATC) with respect to the weather conditions at the area of the airport, variable winds prevailing with a direction from 20° to 160°, average wind direction from 110°, wind velocity 20 kt gusting 38 kt. As laid down in the airport procedures, ATC, given the weather conditions, alerted the fire service vehicles to be stationed in readiness at their designated positions on the taxiways. At 07:24:43 hrs. Rhodes ATC contacted the flight crew wishing to remind that as a result of the strong wind shear and turbulence, landing at the airport is not recommended under the circumstances. At 07:29:34 hrs. Rhodes ATC contacted again the flight crew informing that the wind is shifting from 40° to 260°, average wind direction from 120°, mean wind velocity 20 kt and wind gust 32 kt. At 07:32:36 hrs., at about 8nm to the airport, the ATC contacting again the flight crew informed that wind in the last ten minutes is shifting in all directions, with mean wind velocity 16 kt and wind gust 37 kt; ATC also reminded that under these conditions landing is not recommended. At 07:34:04 hrs., at about 4 nm to the airport, Rhodes ATC contacted again the flight crew informing that wind is shifting from 60° to 200°, mean wind velocity 15 kt, wind gust 32 kt and that runway 07 is free for landing. At 07:35:08 hrs. ATC again reports wind direction from 110°, 17kt. Communication between ATC and the flight crew was smooth without any problem, with the flight crew each time acknowledging the information provided by ATC. Given the prevailing winds, landing with 9° flaps and an airspeed of about 129 kt was selected. With the flight crew having performed all pre-landing checks prescribed in the manual and with the indicator lights for the ‘Down and Lock’ landing system being illuminated green, at about 07:36 hrs. the aircraft landed, with the right main landing gear touching down first. During deceleration immediately after touchdown, with the flight crew having performed all checks specified in the a/c manual and after ATC directed the aircraft to vacate the runway via taxiway ‘C’, the aircraft veered to the left and came to rest at the left edge of the runway without exiting the runway, with an eastward direction. With the fire service vehicle approaching the aircraft, the flight crew contacted the Control Tower of the airport stating that everything is ok, and then reporting inability to taxi when asked whether the aircraft is able to taxi; when asked whether a tire was burst, the flight crew confirmed that this is the case. At 07:37:49 hrs. the Fire Service advises the Control Tower of the airport that the fire truck sprays foam due to fuel leakage. At 07:41:08 hrs. the Control Tower, when so asked by the ‘follow me’ vehicle, inquired of the flight crew whether passengers could be disembarked and the answer was that getting off from the passenger door (forward left) would not be feasible given the presence of the fire-fighting foam on the runway, and that the rear right door (Emergency Exit) would be used instead. As reported by the Air Traffic Controller passengers were disembarked 15 minutes after the incident, and the process lasted approximately 10 minutes. Upon a first visual inspection at the accident site and before the left wing of the aircraft was raised on jacks, it appeared that the left main landing gear folded back resulting in the aircraft’s left side dragging the runway (the left main landing gear and its housing into contact with the runway) and stopping at the left edge of the runway facing to the east.
Probable cause:
- The decision to perform a landing following a non-stabilized approach.
- Landing with a strong and variable wind, the speed and the crosswind component of which were in excess of the values specified by the standard operating procedures, the aircraft manufacturer and the recommendations for the said aerodrome in AIP GREECE.
- The failure to adhere to CRM principles.
Final Report:

Crash of a BAe 3201 Jetstream 31 in Heraklion

Date & Time: Feb 12, 2009 at 1723 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SX-SKY
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Rhodes – Heraklion
MSN:
829
YOM:
1988
Flight number:
SEH103
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
24000
Captain / Total hours on type:
570.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1800
Copilot / Total hours on type:
250
Aircraft flight hours:
13222
Aircraft flight cycles:
15349
Circumstances:
Flight SEH102/103 of 12 February 2009 was a scheduled passenger carrying flight performing the route Heraklion – Rhodes – Heraklion. The crew that was going to perform the flight reported for duty at 16:00 h. The aircraft had earlier on the same day performed, with a different flight crew, four routes (Heraklion – Rhodes – Heraklion and Heraklion – Samos – Heraklion), without any problems being reported. Nothing had been observed during the pre-flight check. The aircraft departed Heraklion at 16:55 h and landed at Rhodes at 17:35 h without incident. At 18:30 h the aircraft departed Rhodes for Heraklion, carrying three crew members and 15 passengers. The pilot flying (PF) this particular sector was the Pilot in Command (PIC). At a distance of 30 nm from Heraklion and at a altitude of 7700 ft on its descent to 3000 ft, the crew informed the Air Traffic Control that it had the runway in sight and requested and was granted clearance to perform a visual approach. The aircraft, fully configured for landing from a distance of 7nm, approached the airport for landing at runway 27. The wind information provided by the Air Traffic Control was 18 kt – 25 kt, from 210°. While approaching the runway, the PF asked the First Officer (FO) to check the angle of descent based on the APAPIs’ of the runway. The FO confirmed the correct angle of descent, saying “one white, one red”. The aircraft crossed the threshold with a speed of 112 kt and after flaring the PF reduced speed to Flight Idle and touched down with a speed of 86 kt. As the speed was being gradually reduced, the PF had difficulty with controlling the aircraft along its longitudinal axis and noticing that the aircraft was leaning somewhat to the right, reported to the FO that “the gear has broken”. Immediately afterwards, the blades of the right propeller of the aircraft struck the runway. As the aircraft continued to move with the left main landing gear wheel operating normally and the collapsed right main landing gear, folded backwards under the wing, being dragged along the runway, the crew stopped the engines, reported to the Airport Control Tower that the right landing gear had broken and requested evacuation. The aircraft stopped in the runway with its nose wheel at 4.6 m to the right of the center line, at a distance of 930 m from the point of the propeller’s first contact with the runway. Immediately afterwards the PF ordered the cabin crew to open the cabin door and evacuated the aircraft, and the FO, who observed some fuel leaking from the right engine, switched off the electrical systems and requested through the Airport Control Tower that the fire trucks, which were on their way, to throw foam on the right wing to prevent any fire being started. The passengers disembarked from the left aft door without any problems with the assistance of the cabin crew, while the fire trucks covered the right wing with foam as a preventive measure. The airport, applying the standing procedures, removed the aircraft and released the runway for operation at 22:30 h. During the period of time that runway 09/27 remained out of operation, two flights approaching the airport for landing were diverted to Chania Airport, and the departures of another three flights were delayed.
Probable cause:
CONCLUSIONS
Findings:
- The flight crew met all the requirements for the performance of the flight.
- The aircraft was airworthy.
- The aircraft’s landing gears have a life of 50,000 cycles (landings) and the interval between two overhauls is six years or 10,000 cycles, whichever comes sooner.
- The fractured landing gear had completed 23,940 cycles since new and had been subjected to an overhaul on 17.09.08. Since then and as of the date of the accident it had completed 148 cycles.
- The aircraft manufacturer had issued an SB, and the UK Civil Aviation Authority an AD, asking for tests and inspection applicable to Region “A” of the main landing gear cylinders.
- Said AD had been carried out without findings in the course of the landing gear overhaul of 17.09.08 by an EASA-Part 145 approved maintenance organization.
- On 02.01.09 a visual inspection of Region “A” of the main landing gear cylinders was carried out by the aircraft operator’s maintenance organization, in accordance with Part B of the SB, again without findings.
- On 07.02.09 and in the morning of 12.02.09 the aircraft made ‘heavy’ landings considering that vertical acceleration values of 2.8 g and 2.5 g, respectively, had been recorded. None of these landings had been recorded in the aircraft’s log in order to trigger the inspection prescribed in the aircraft’s maintenance manual after a ‘heavy’ landing.
- According to the technical examination of the fractured parts, the first crack developed in Region “A” (fracture surface “A2-B2”) increasing the loading upon the cylinder material surrounding the threaded fasteners, sites of stress concentration. The second and third cracks then initiated at the site of stress concentration and propagated within the cylinder to form fracture surfaces “A1” - “B1” in the region surrounding the threaded fasteners. The cracks and the fracture resulted from the ductile overload of the undercarriage cylinder which is likely to have resulted from a ‘heavy’ landing made by the aircraft.
Probable Causes:
Landing gear cylinder failure because of ductile overload resulting from a ‘heavy’ landing made by the aircraft.
Final Report:

Crash of a Canadair CL-415-6B11 in Diliso: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jul 23, 2007 at 1546 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
2055
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
2055
YOM:
2001
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a fire fighting mission in the region of Diliso, on the Evia Island, with four other water bomber and two helicopters. While approaching the zone under fire, the aircraft struck the ground and crashed, killing both occupants.

Crash of a Canadair CL-215-1A10 off Patroklos Island

Date & Time: Jul 6, 2006 at 0930 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
1112
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
1112
YOM:
1990
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The aircraft was taking part to a fire fighting mission on the Tzia Island. While returning to scope in the Saronic Gulf, the aircraft struck a wave and came to rest off the Patroklos Island. Both pilots were rescued by the crew of a Super Puma helicopter from the Greek Navy while the aircraft was recovered but damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a Boeing 737-31S near Grammatiko: 121 killed

Date & Time: Aug 14, 2005 at 1203 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5B-DBY
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Larnaca – Athens – Prague
MSN:
29099
YOM:
1998
Flight number:
ZU522
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
115
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
121
Captain / Total flying hours:
16900
Captain / Total hours on type:
5500.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
7549
Copilot / Total hours on type:
3991
Aircraft flight hours:
17900
Aircraft flight cycles:
16085
Circumstances:
On 14 August 2005, a Boeing 737-300 aircraft, registration number 5B-DBY, operated by Helios Airways, departed Larnaca, Cyprus at 06:07 h for Prague, Czech Republic, via Athens, Hellas. The aircraft was cleared to climb to FL340 and to proceed direct to RDS VOR. As the aircraft climbed through 16 000 ft, the Captain contacted the company Operations Centre and reported a Take-off Configuration Warning and an Equipment Cooling system problem. Several communications between the Captain and the Operations Centre took place in the next eight minutes concerning the above problems and ended as the aircraft climbed through 28 900 ft. Thereafter, there was no response to radio calls to the aircraft. During the climb, at an aircraft altitude of 18 200 ft, the passenger oxygen masks deployed in the cabin. The aircraft leveled off at FL340 and continued on its programmed route. At 07:21 h, the aircraft flew over the KEA VOR, then over the Athens International Airport, and subsequently entered the KEA VOR holding pattern at 07:38 h. At 08:24 h, during the sixth holding pattern, the Boeing 737 was intercepted by two F-16 aircraft of the Hellenic Air Force. One of the F-16 pilots observed the aircraft at close range and reported at 08:32 h that the Captain’s seat was vacant, the First Officer’s seat was occupied by someone who
2 was slumped over the controls, the passenger oxygen masks were seen dangling and three motionless passengers were seen seated wearing oxygen masks in the cabin. No external damage or fire was noted and the aircraft was not responding to radio calls. At 08:49 h, he reported a person not wearing an oxygen mask entering the cockpit and occupying the Captain’s seat. The F-16 pilot tried to attract his attention without success. At 08:50 h, the left engine flamed out due to fuel depletion and the aircraft started descending. At 08:54 h, two MAYDAY messages were recorded on the CVR. At 09:00 h, the right engine also flamed out at an altitude of approximately 7 100 ft. The aircraft continued descending rapidly and impacted hilly terrain at 09:03 h in the vicinity of Grammatiko village, Hellas, approximately 33 km northwest of the Athens International Airport. The 115 passengers and 6 crew members on board were fatally injured. The aircraft
was destroyed.
Probable cause:
Direct Causes:
1. Non-recognition that the cabin pressurization mode selector was in the MAN (manual) position during the performance of the:
a) Preflight procedure;
b) Before Start checklist; and
c) After Takeoff checklist.
2. Non-identification of the warnings and the reasons for the activation of the warnings (cabin altitude warning horn, passenger oxygen masks deployment indication, Master Caution), and continuation of the climb.
3. Incapacitation of the flight crew due to hypoxia, resulting in continuation of the flight via the flight management computer and the autopilot, depletion of the fuel and engine flameout, and impact of the aircraft with the ground.
Latent causes
1. The Operator’s deficiencies in organization, quality management and safety culture, documented diachronically as findings in numerous audits.
2. The Regulatory Authority’s diachronic inadequate execution of its oversight responsibilities to ensure the safety of operations of the airlines under its supervision and its inadequate responses to findings of deficiencies documented in numerous audits.
3. Inadequate application of Crew Resource Management (CRM) principles by the flight crew.
4. Ineffectiveness and inadequacy of measures taken by the manufacturer in response to previous pressurization incidents in the particular type of aircraft, both with regard to modifications to aircraft systems as well as to guidance to the crews.
Contributing Factors to the Accident:
1. Omission of returning the pressurization mode selector to AUTO after unscheduled maintenance on the aircraft.
2. Lack of specific procedures (on an international basis) for cabin crew procedures to address the situation of loss of pressurization, passenger oxygen masks deployment, and continuation of the aircraft ascent (climb).
3. Ineffectiveness of international aviation authorities to enforce implementation of corrective action plans after relevant audits.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 421C Golden Eagle III off Rhodes

Date & Time: May 3, 2003 at 1235 LT
Operator:
Registration:
D-IWWW
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
421C-0042
YOM:
1976
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The aircraft suffered a double engine failure and the pilot attempted to ditch the aircraft off Rhodes. All occupants were rescued while the aircraft sank and was lost.
Probable cause:
Double engine failure for unknown reasons.

Crash of a Canadair CL-215-1A10 near Volos: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jul 15, 2000
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
1048
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Volos - Volos
MSN:
1048
YOM:
1974
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The crew departed Volos-Nea Anchialos Airport on a fire fighting mission over Mt Pelion, about 10 km northeast of Volos. While flying at low height, the crew was preparing to drop water when the right wing struck the ground. The aircraft crashed and exploded, killing both pilots.

Crash of a Tupolev TU-154B-2 in Thessaloniki

Date & Time: Jul 4, 2000 at 1657 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HA-LCR
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Budapest - Thessaloniki
MSN:
82A543
YOM:
1982
Flight number:
MA262
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
86
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
7420
Captain / Total hours on type:
7000.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
566
Copilot / Total hours on type:
566
Aircraft flight hours:
22409
Aircraft flight cycles:
13583
Circumstances:
Originally, flight MA262 from Budapest to Thessaloniki should be performed by a Boeing 737-300 HA-LES but due to technical problems, a Tupolev TU-154B-2 was dispatched. Following an uneventful flight, the crew was cleared for a VOR/DME approach to runway 34 followed by a visual circle to land on runway 28 as the runway 34 was closed to traffic due to construction works. Because a Boeing 757 slowed to vacate the runway after landing, ATC instructed the crew to extend the downwind leg for runway 28. For unknown reasons, the crew failed to comply with this instructions and performed 'S'. On final approach, the tower controller informed the crew that he forgot to lower the undercarriage. The captain increased engine power and initiated a go-around procedure but this decision was too late. The aircraft continued to descend and struck the runway surface in a gear-up configuration at 1657LT. The aircraft suffered substantial damages but the crew managed to go-around and to follow a holding pattern. A safe landing was completed at 1715LT. All 94 occupants evacuated safely while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Despite repeated instructions of the control tower the crew did not carried out a short turn for landing, resulting in:
- The aircraft was not aligned with the runway in time (unstabilized approach).
- Attention of the cockpit crew was to exclusively dedicated to performing sudden maneuvers at low altitude, in order to align the plane with the runway.
- Failure to lower the undercarriage in accordance with the applicable procedures for this flight phase.
Contributing Factors:
- The apparent inactivation of the audible warning when the undercarriage was not deployed.
- Lack of Cockpit Resources Management.
Final Report: