Crash of an Airbus A320-214 in Karachi: 98 killed

Date & Time: May 22, 2020 at 1439 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BLD
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Schedule:
Lahore - Karachi
MSN:
2274
YOM:
2004
Flight number:
PK8303
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
91
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
98
Aircraft flight hours:
47124
Aircraft flight cycles:
25866
Circumstances:
On 22 May 2020 at 13:05 hrs PST, the Pakistan International Airlines aircraft Airbus A320-214, registration number AP-BLD, took off from Lahore (Allama Iqbal International Airport – AIIAP) Pakistan to perform a regular commercial passenger flight (PK8303) to Karachi (Jinnah International Airport – JIAP) Pakistan, with 8 crew members (01 Captain, 01 First Officer, and 06 flight attendants) and 91 passengers on board. At 14:35 hrs the aircraft performed an ILS approach for runway 25L and touched down without landing gears, resting on the engines. Both engines scrubbed the runway at high speed. Flight crew initiated a go-around and informed “Karachi Approach” that they intend to make a second approach. About four minutes later, during downwind leg, at an altitude of around 2000 ft, flight crew declared an emergency and stated that both engines had failed. The aircraft started losing altitude. It crashed in a populated area, short of runway 25L by about 1340 meters. An immediate subsequent post impact fire initiated. Out of 99 souls on-board, 97 were fatally injured and 02 passengers survived. On ground 04 persons were injured however 01 out of these reportedly expired later at a hospital.

Below, the preliminary report published by the Pakistan AAIB.
Final Report:

Crash of an Airbus A300B4-203 in Kathmandu: 167 killed

Date & Time: Sep 28, 1992 at 1430 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BCP
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Kathmandu
MSN:
025
YOM:
1976
Flight number:
PK268
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
19
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
148
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
167
Captain / Total flying hours:
13186
Captain / Total hours on type:
6260.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
5849
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1469
Aircraft flight hours:
39045
Aircraft flight cycles:
19172
Circumstances:
The ill-fated aircraft departed Karachi Airport Pakistan, at 0613 hours UTC on 28 September 1992 as Pakistan International Airlines Flight Number PK 268, a non-stop service to Kathmandu, Nepal. The accident occurred at 0845 UTC (1430 hours local time) when the aircraft struck a mountain during an instrument approach to Kathmandu’s Tribhuvan International Airport. The impact site was at an altitude of 7280 feet above sea level (2890 feet above airport level), 9.16 nautical miles from the VOR/DME beacon and directly beneath the instrument approach track from the VOR/DME beacon (9.76 nm from and 2970 ft above the threshold of Runway 02 which is 77 feet below the airport datum). The flight through Pakistani and Indian airspace appears to have proceeded normally. At 0825 hrs UTC (1410 hrs local time) two-way contact between Pakistan 268 and Kathmandu Area Control West was established on VHF radio and the aircraft was procedurally cleared towards Kathmandu in accordance with its flight plan. After obtaining the Kathmandu weather and airfield details, the aircraft was given traffic information and instructed to report overhead the SIM (Simara) non-directional beacon (214°R VOR/39 nm from Kathmandu’s KTM VOR/DME) at or above FL150 (flight level on standard altimeter) as cleared by the Calcutta Area Control Centre. At 08:37 hrs the copilot reported that the aircraft was approaching the SIM beacon at FL 150, whereupon procedural clearance was given to continue to position SIERRA (202°R/10 nm from the KTM beacon) and to descend to 11,500 feet altitude. No approach delay was forecast by the area controller and the co-pilot correctly read back both the clearance and the instruction to report at 25 DME. At 08:40:14 hrs, he reported that the aircraft was approaching 25 DME whereupon the crew were instructed to maintain 11,500 feet and change frequency to Kathmandu Tower. Two-way radio contact with the Tower was established a few seconds later and the crew reported that they were in the process of intercepting the final approach track of 022M (Magnetic) of Radial 202 KTM VOR ) They were instructed to expect a Sierra approach and to report at 16 DME. At 08:42:51 hrs the first officer reported “One six due at eleven thousand five hundred”. The tower controller responded by clearing the aircraft for the Sierra approach and instructing the crew to report at 10 DME. At 08:44:27 the first officer reported 10 DME and three seconds later he was asked, “Report your level”. He replied, “We crossed out of eight thousand five hun,’ two hundred now”. The controller replied with the instruction “Roger clear for final. Report four DME Runway zero two”. The copilot responded to this instruction in a normal, calm and unhurried tone of voice; his reply was the last transmission heard from the aircraft, thirty-two seconds after the copilot reported 10 DME the aircraft crashed into steep, cloud-covered mountainside at 7,280 feet amsl and 9.16 nm on radial 202 of KTM VOR. All 167 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The balance of evidence suggests that the primary cause of the accident was that one or both pilots consistently failed to follow the approach procedure and inadvertently adopted a profile which, at each DME fix, was one altitude step ahead and below the correct procedure. Why and how that happened could not be determined with certainty because there was no record of the crew's conversation on the flight deck. Contributory causal factors were thought to be the inevitable complexity of the approach and the associated approach chart.
The following findings were reported:
- The flight deck crew were properly licensed and medically fit,
- The aircraft had been properly maintained and was fit for the flight and the essential aircraft systems were operating normally during the approach,
- The SIERRA approach to Kathmandu is a demanding approach in any wide-bodied aircraft,
- Unlawful interference and extreme weather were not causal factors,
- The crash site was enveloped in cloud at the time of the accident,
- There was no ATC clearance error,
- The VOR DME beacons used for the approach were operating satisfactorily and there was no evidence of failure or malfunction within the aircraft’s DME equipment,
- The aircraft acquired and maintained the correct final approach track but began descent too early and then continued to descend in accordance with an altitude profile which was consistent with being 'one step ahead' and below the correct profile,
- At 16 DME the co-pilot mis-reported the aircraft’s altitude by 1,000 feet,
- The commander did not adhere to the airline’s recommended technique for the final part of the approach which commenced at 10 DME,
- The 10 DME position report requested by the Tower controller was made at an altitude below the minimum safe altitude for that portion of the approach,
- The altitude profile on the Jeppesen approach chart which should have been used by the pilots was technically correct. However, the profile illustrated could not be flown in the A300 at V app, in common with any other wide-bodied jet of similar size and the minimum altitude at some DME fixes was not directly associated with the fix,
- The aircraft did not have control column mounted chartboards,
- As described in the report, there is scope for improving the SIERRA approach procedure and its associated charts,
- Kathmandu was not a frequent destination for PIA’S A300 crews and neither pilot had operated that within the previous two months,
- PIA’s training of air crews, briefing material and self-briefing facilities for the SIERRA approach to Kathmandu leave room for improvement,
- PIA’s route checking and flight operations inspection procedures were ineffective,
- The accident was inevitable 15 seconds before impact,
- The Tower controller requested an altitude report immediately after the co-pilot reported at 10 DME. His failure to challenge the low altitude reported at 10 DME was a missed opportunity to prevent the accident but, even if he had done so, it is doubtful whether the accident could have been averted,
- Some air controllers at Kathmandu had a low-self-esteem and was reluctant to intervene in piloting matters such as terrain separation,
- The GPWS was probably serviceable but failed to warn the crew of impending flight towards high ground because of the combination of elderly equipment and rugged terrain,
- Advice within the aircraft manufacturer’s operating manuals regarding pilot reaction to a GPWS warning was incomplete,
- The MEL was being breached in that PIA wen not supplying their CAA with the required carry-forward defect summaries for analysis, neither was the CAA requesting them.

Crash of a Boeing 707-351B in Karachi

Date & Time: Feb 7, 1992
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-AZW
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
19636/731
YOM:
1968
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The four engine aircraft suffered a runway excursion after landing at Karachi-Quaid-e-Azam Airport. There were no casualties while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of an Antonov AN-12B near Nawabshah: 24 killed

Date & Time: Aug 4, 1984
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-10232
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Aden - Karachi - Tashkent
MSN:
3 3 411 07
YOM:
1963
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
24
Circumstances:
The four engine aircraft was completing a military/cargo flight from Aden to Tashkent with an intermediate stop in Karachi. On the leg from Karachi to Tashkent, while cruising at an altitude of 5,500 meters, weather conditions deteriorated and the aircraft entered an area of hailstorm with severe turbulences. All four engine lost power and the crew was forced to shut down the engine n°1 and 3 while the engine n°2 and 4 were reduced to idle. The crew then initiated an emergency descent when the aircraft partially disintegrated in the air and crashed. It was determined that excessive g-loads caused several parts to detach during the emergency descent.
Probable cause:
It was determined that all four engines lost power in-flight after hail accumulated in the oil tanks.

Crash of a Boeing 747-121 in Karachi

Date & Time: Aug 4, 1983 at 0438 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N738PA
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
New Delhi – Karachi – London – New York
MSN:
19645
YOM:
1970
Flight number:
PA073
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
16
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
227
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
53324
Circumstances:
Flight PA073 was cleared to land on runway 25R of Karachi International Airport (KHI), Pakistan. The approach speed just prior to touchdown was 152 knots. After touchdown reverse thrust was applied on engines n°1, 2 and 3. Engine No.4 which had an unserviceable reverser was left in forward idle. Seventy knots was called and some three seconds later reverse power was decreased. At this stage EPR on n°4 engine increased rapidly. The aircraft veered to the left of the centerline at about 7400 feet from the approach end of runway 25R and departed the runway edge at 8000 feet from the approach end of runway 25R with 2,500 feet of runway remaining. Shortly before the aircraft departed the runway, the pilot flying (copilot) reported that he had no brakes and no nose wheel steering. The captain stated that he got on the brakes and tiller at this time to assist. After departing the runway surface the aircraft travelled 380 feet through soft mud before it came to rest at a point about 2100 feet from the end of runway 25R, heading about 160 degrees on the Southern side of the runway with the tail of the aircraft 120 feet from the runway edge. Shortly after the aircraft departed the runway, the nose gear struck a VASI light installation and its concrete base causing the nose gear to collapse backwards and to the left, resulting in total destruction of the VASI light installation and damage to the forward cargo hold, floor of the first class section and the stairway leading to the upper deck. Damage to the aircraft was substantial and it was not repaired. All 243 occupants evacuated safely.
Source: ASN
Probable cause:
Loss of directional control as the result of inadvertent application of forward thrust on n°4 engine at the time the pilot flying was coming out of reverse thrust on engines n°1, 2 and 3 during the landing roll, and subsequent failure of the crew to recognize the asymmetric power condition. Contributing were failure of the crew to monitor the engines, and failure to follow specified procedures during the landing.

Crash of a Boeing 720-047B in Karachi

Date & Time: Jan 8, 1981
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-AXK
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Karachi - Quetta
MSN:
48590/339
YOM:
1963
Flight number:
PK320
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
72
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
On approach to Quetta, the crew was unable to lower the nose gear that remained stuck in its wheel well. The captain initiated a go-around and decided to return to Karachi Intl Airport. Despite several manual attempts to lower the gear, the crew eventually decided to land in a nose gear-up configuration. Upon touchdown, the airplane slid on its nose for few hundred yards before coming to rest. All 79 occupants escaped without injuries while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Failure of the nose gear that remained stuck in its wheel well for unknown reasons.

Crash of a Beechcraft 65-A80 Queen Air in Karachi

Date & Time: Jul 8, 1979
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
G-BDKG
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
LD-194
YOM:
1975
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Crashed in unknown circumstances while approaching Karachi-Quaid-e-Azam Airport following a delivery flight from UK. Both pilots were injured and the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a Fokker F27 Friendship 200 in Karachi: 1 killed

Date & Time: Dec 15, 1978
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-ATO
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Karachi - Karachi
MSN:
10250
YOM:
1964
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Aircraft flight hours:
30260
Aircraft flight cycles:
38666
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a local training mission at Karachi-Quaid-e-Azam Airport consisting of stall tests. On final approach, both engines lost power simultaneously and the aircraft stalled. The crew elected to regain control but the airplane crashed. The copilot was seriously injured while the captain was killed.
Probable cause:
Overtemperature of both engines, resulting in their simultaneous failure. This was caused by malfunction of the contact switches of No.1 engine propeller automatic flight safety pitch lock withdrawal system and the pilot's failure to withdraw the locks manually by placing the HP fuel cock levers in the 'lockout' position.

Crash of a Convair CV-990-30A-5 near Bombay: 30 killed

Date & Time: May 28, 1968 at 0244 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
PK-GJA
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Jakarta – Bombay – Karachi – Cairo – Rome – Amsterdam
MSN:
30-10-3
YOM:
1964
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
14
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
29
Circumstances:
Less than five minutes after a night takeoff from Bombay-Santa Cruz Airport, while climbing, the aircraft entered a nose-down attitude then plunged into the earth and crashed in a huge explosion some 32 km north of the airport. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 29 occupants were killed as well as one person on the ground. Few houses were damaged and few other people were injured.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the loss of control was the consequence of the partial or complete failure of all four engines during the initial climb. Investigations reported that during the stop at Bombay Airport, the wrong type of fuel was transferred into the tanks of the Coronado. Instead of kerosene, ground staff fueled the aircraft with regular benzin.

Crash of a Aviation Traders ATL-98 Carvair in Karachi: 13 killed

Date & Time: Mar 8, 1967
Operator:
Registration:
F-BMHU
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Tokyo
MSN:
4/10338
YOM:
1962
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
13
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff, the airplane encountered difficulties to gain height when it struck a bridge over Drig Road and crashed. All six crew members and seven people on the ground were killed.
Probable cause:
Failure of the right engine during initial climb while the left engine did not provide sufficient power.