Crash of an Airbus A321 in Islamabad: 152 killed

Date & Time: Jul 28, 2010 at 0941 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJB
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Islamabad
MSN:
1218
YOM:
2000
Flight number:
ABQ202
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
146
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
152
Captain / Total flying hours:
25497
Captain / Total hours on type:
1060.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1837
Copilot / Total hours on type:
286
Aircraft flight hours:
34018
Aircraft flight cycles:
13566
Circumstances:
Flight ABQ202, operated by Airblue, was scheduled to fly a domestic flight sector Karachi - Islamabad. The aircraft had 152 persons on board, including six crew members. The Captain of aircraft was Captain Pervez Iqbal Chaudhary. Mishap aircraft took-off from Karachi at 0241 UTC (0741 PST) for Islamabad. At time 0441:08, while executing a circling approach for RWY-12 at Islamabad, it flew into Margalla Hills, and crashed at a distance of 9.6 NM, on a radial 334 from Islamabad VOR. The aircraft was completely destroyed and all souls on board the aircraft, sustained fatal injuries.
Probable cause:
- Weather conditions indicated rain, poor visibility and low clouds in and around the airport. The information regarding prevalent weather and the required type of approach on arrival was in the knowledge of aircrew.
- Though aircrew Captain was fit to undertake the flight on the mishap day, yet his portrayed behavior and efficiency was observed to have deteriorated with the inclement weather at BBIAP Islamabad.
- The chain of events leading to the accident in fact started with the commencement of flight, where Captain was heard to be confusing BBIAP Islamabad with JIAP Karachi while planning FMS, and Khanpur Lake (Wah) with Kahuta area during holding pattern. This state continued when Captain of the mishap flight violated the prescribed Circling Approach procedure for RWY-12; by descending below MDA (i.e 2,300 ft instead of maintaining 2,510 ft), losing visual contact with the airfield and instead resorting to fly the non-standard self created PBD based approach, thus transgressing out of protected airspace of maximum of 4.3 NM into Margallas and finally collided with the hills.
- Aircrew Captain not only clearly violated the prescribed procedures for circling approach but also did not at all adhere to FCOM procedures of displaying reaction / response to timely and continuous terrain and pull up warnings (21 times in 70 seconds) – despite these very loud, continuous and executive commands, the Captain failed to register the urgency of the situation and did not respond in kind (break off / pull off).
- F/O simply remained a passive bystander in the cockpit and did not participate as an effective team member failing to supplement / compliment or to correct the errors of his captain assertively in line with the teachings of CRM due to Captain’s behavior in the flight.
- At the crucial juncture both the ATC and the Radar controllers were preoccupied with bad weather and the traffic; the air traffic controller having lost visual contact with the aircraft got worried and sought Radar help on the land line (the ATC does not have a Radar scope); the radar controller having cleared aircraft to change frequency to ATC, got busy with the following traffic. Having been alerted by the ATC, the Radar controller shifted focus to the mishap aircraft – seeing the aircraft very close to NFZ he asked the ATCO (on land line) to ask the aircraft to immediately turn left, which was transmitted. Sensing the gravity of the situation and on seeing the aircraft still heading towards the hills, the Radar controller asked the ATCO on land line “Confirm he has visual contact with the ground. If not, then ask him to immediately climb, and make him execute missed approach”. The ATCO in quick succession asked the Captain if he had contact with the
airfield – on receiving no reply from aircrew the ATCO on Radars prompting asked if he had contact with the ground. Aircrew announced visual contact with the ground which put ATS at ease.
Ensuing discussion and mutual situational update (on land line) continued and, in fact, the ATC call “message from Radar immediately turn left” was though transmitted, but by the time the call got transmitted, the aircraft had crashed at the same time.
- The accident was primarily caused by the aircrew who violated all established procedures for a visual approach for RWY-12 and ignored several calls by ATS Controllers and EGPWS system warnings (21) related to approaching rising terrain and PULL UP.
Final Report:

Crash of a Fokker F27 in Multan: 45 killed

Date & Time: Jul 10, 2006 at 1200 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BAL
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Multan-Lahore
MSN:
10243
YOM:
1964
Flight number:
PIA688
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
41
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
45
Aircraft flight hours:
73591
Aircraft flight cycles:
83485
Circumstances:

Shortly after takeoff, the airplane suffered an engine failure and crashed in an open field located few hundred metres after the runway. The aircraft was destroyed and all occupants fatally injured.

Crash of a Fokker F27 Friendship 200 in Chitral

Date & Time: Jun 16, 2004
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-AUR
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Peshawar - Chitral
MSN:
10307
YOM:
1966
Flight number:
PK660
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
36
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
After landing on runway 02 at Chitral Airport, the aircraft was unable to stop within the remaining distance. It overran, lost its undercarriage and came to rest in a grassy and sandy area. All 40 occupants evacuated safely and the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a Cessna 402B off Karachi: 8 killed

Date & Time: Feb 24, 2003
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BFG
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Kabul
MSN:
402B-1304
YOM:
1977
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
6
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
8
Aircraft flight hours:
6793
Circumstances:
The aircraft was chartered by the Afghan Government to carry a delegation from Karachi to Kabul. After takeoff from Karachi-Quaid-e-Azam Airport, the twin engine aircraft continued to climb to an altitude of 9,000 feet when it entered an uncontrolled descent. At an altitude of 2,500 feet, the aircraft disappeared from radar screens then crashed in the Arabian Sea few km offshore. The stabilizers and the tail were found few hundred metres from the main wreckage. All eight occupants were killed, among them Juma Mohammad Mohammadi, Afghan Minister of Industry and four members of his cabinet as well as one Chinese businessman.
Probable cause:
The Pakistan board of investigations determined that the probable cause of this accident was a structural failure due to overload. The aircraft weight was 7,183 lbs at the time of the accident as the maximum load as mentioned in the operational manual is 6,300 lbs, which means 883 pounds above max gross weight. It is believed that during climbout, the tail and stabilizers detached due to overload conditions.

Crash of a Fokker F27 Friendship 200 near Kohat: 17 killed

Date & Time: Feb 20, 2003 at 0915 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
10254
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Islamabad - Kohat
MSN:
10254
YOM:
1964
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
17
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Islamabad on a flight to Kohat, carrying nine passengers and eight crew members. While descending to Kohat, the crew encountered poor visibility when, at an altitude of 3,000 feet, the aircraft struck the slope of a mountain located 27 km from the airport. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 17 occupants were killed, among them Mushaf Ali Mir, Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Air Force and his wife. He was flying to Kohat with a delegation to perform the annual inspection of the airbase.
Probable cause:
Controlled flight into terrain after the crew initiated the descent prematurely, causing the aircraft to descend below the minimum safe altitude until it impacted ground. Poor weather conditions were considered as a contributing factor.

Ground accident of a Dornier DO228-201 in Karachi

Date & Time: Feb 19, 2003
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BGF
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Karachi - Karachi
MSN:
8016
YOM:
1983
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful training flight at Karachi-Quaid-e-Azam Airport, the crew was taxiing to his parking place when control was lost. The aircraft rolled across the apron and eventually collided with a concrete wall. Both pilots escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a Lockheed KC-130R Hercules at Shamsi AFB: 7 killed

Date & Time: Jan 9, 2002
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
160021
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Jacobabad – Shamsi
MSN:
4702
YOM:
1976
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Jacobabad, the crew started a night approach to Shamsi AFB. While descending in limited visibility at the altitude of 3,200 feet, the four engine aircraft struck the slope of a mountain located few km from the airfield. All seven occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
It is believed that the crew lost his orientation while approaching Shamsi AFB by night and without any visual references on ground.

Crash of a Lockheed P-3C-II.75 Orion off Pasni: 21 killed

Date & Time: Oct 29, 1999
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
83
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Pasni - Pasni
MSN:
185-5827
YOM:
1988
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
21
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
21
Circumstances:
Crashed in unknown circumstances in the sea off Pasni while completing a maritime patrol flight. All 21 occupants were killed.

Ground fire of a Lockheed C-130 Hercules at Chaklala AFB

Date & Time: Sep 10, 1998
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
23491
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
3701
YOM:
1962
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
While parked at Chaklala AFB, the aircraft was destroyed by fire after being struck by another Pakistan Air Force Hercules C-130. The aircraft was empty at the time of the accident.

Ground accident of a Lockheed C-130B Hercules at Chaklala AFB: 5 killed

Date & Time: Sep 10, 1998
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
24143
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Chaklala - Chaklala
MSN:
3781
YOM:
1963
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Circumstances:
The crew was engaged in a local post maintenance test flight. While taxiing, the crew lost control of the airplane that collided with a parked Pakistan Air Force C-130. A major fire occurred, destroying both aircraft. All five crew members were killed while the second aircraft was empty.
Probable cause:
It is believed that the loss of control was the consequence of brakes failure (brakes overheated).