Crash of a Boeing 737-4H6 in Lahore

Date & Time: Nov 3, 2015 at 0927 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJO
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Karachi – Lahore
MSN:
27166/2410
YOM:
1992
Flight number:
SAI142
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
112
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The approach to runway 36L at Lahore-Allama Iqbal Airport was completed in marginal weather conditions with a horizontal visibility up to 1,500 meters. For unknown reason, the crew landed on the left side of the runway, on a grassy area. The aircraft rolled for several yards and contacted a concrete perpendicular taxiway. The impact caused both main landing gears to be sheared off and the aircraft skidded few dozen meters before coming to rest on its belly 2,500 meters past the runway threshold. All 119 occupants were evacuated, among them 10 were injured. The aircraft is written off.

Crash of a Boeing 737-236 in Islamabad: 127 killed

Date & Time: Apr 20, 2012 at 1840 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BKC
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Islamabad
MSN:
23167/1074
YOM:
1984
Flight number:
B4-213
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
121
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
127
Circumstances:
On final approach to Islamabad-Benazir Bhutto Airport in poor weather conditions, aircraft hit the ground five kilometers short of runway 30 and disintegrated on impact. On site, near Chaklala AFB, rescuers did not find any survivors among the 127 occupants, 126 Pakistanese and one American. Fortunately, no one on the ground was hurt as several houses were damaged. At the time of the accident, visibility was estimated to 3 km with CB's down to 2,500 feet, rain showers, thunderstorm activity and a wind from 230° at 20 knots. Bhoja Air was performing this flight for the first time (inaugural flight) following a grounding period due to financial problems. Up to date, second worst crash in Pakistan's History. Windshear suspected.

Crash of an Ilyushin II-76TD in Karachi: 12 killed

Date & Time: Nov 28, 2010 at 0148 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
4L-GNI
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Khartoum
MSN:
43452546
YOM:
1982
Flight number:
MGC4412
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
12
Circumstances:
Shortly after take off from Karachi-Jinnah Airport runway 25L, while climbing, aircraft stalled and crashed in a a huge explosion on a building under construction, five kilometers from the airport. All eight occupants were killed as four person in the building, most probably workers who were sleeping at the time of the accident. Aircraft was carrying 31 tons of tents on a supply mission to Khartoum, Sudan.
Probable cause:
It is suspected that an engine failed shortly after take off following a bird strike. This was not confirmed yet by the Pakistan authorities.

Crash of a Beechcraft 1900C in Karachi: 21 killed

Date & Time: Nov 5, 2010 at 0706 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJD
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Bhit Shah
MSN:
UC-157
YOM:
1991
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
19
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
21
Captain / Total flying hours:
8114
Captain / Total hours on type:
1820.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1746
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1338
Aircraft flight hours:
18545
Aircraft flight cycles:
24990
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Karachi-Jinnah Airport runway 07R, while in initial climb, the pilot informed ATC about engine problems and elected to return to runway 25R. Shortly later, the aircraft went out of control and crashed in a wasteland located near the Gulistan-e-Jauhar residential area, less than one mile from Airport. The aircraft was destroyed by impact forces and a post impact fire. All 21 occupants were killed, among them several employees of the Italian Oil Company ENI.
Probable cause:
Detailed investigation and analyses of the examinable evidence confirmed that the aircraft had developed some problem with its Engine No.2 (Right) immediately after takeoff which was observed by the cockpit crew as propeller feathering on its own. No concrete evidence could be found which would have led to the engine’s propeller malfunction as observed. The only probable cause of propeller feathering on its own could be the wear & tear of the beta valve leading to beta system malfunction. However, this anomaly at the most could have led to the non availability of one engine and making a safe landing with a single engine since the aircraft was capable of landing with a single engine operation. Some of the actions by the cockpit crew before takeoff and subsequent to the observed anomaly in the Engine No.2 were not according to the QRH / FCOM which aggravated the situation and resulted into the catastrophic accident.
The following factors contributed to the accident:
The aircraft accident took place as a result of combination of various factors which directly and indirectly contributed towards the causation of accident.
The primary cause of accident includes, inappropriate skill level of Captain to handle abnormal operation of engine No 2 just after takeoff, failure of cockpit crew to raise the landing gears after experiencing the engine anomaly, execution of remedial actions by FO before the attainment of minimum safe altitude of 400 ft AGL resulted in non conformance and non compliance of cockpit crew to OEM recommended procedures to handle such situations.
The lack of situational awareness and CRM failure directly contributed towards ineffective management of the flight deck by the cockpit crew.
The contributory factors include inadequate cockpit crew simulator training monitoring mechanism both at operator and CAA Pakistan levels in respect of correlation of previous / current performance and skill level of cockpit crew during the simulator training sessions along with absence of conduct of recurrent / refresher simulator training between two annual simulator checks in accordance with ICAO Annex-6 guidelines and CAA Pakistan (applicable ANOs) requirements for specific type of aircraft in a year.
Final Report:

Crash of an Airbus A321 in Islamabad: 152 killed

Date & Time: Jul 28, 2010 at 0941 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJB
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Islamabad
MSN:
1218
YOM:
2000
Flight number:
ABQ202
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
146
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
152
Captain / Total flying hours:
25497
Captain / Total hours on type:
1060.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1837
Copilot / Total hours on type:
286
Aircraft flight hours:
34018
Aircraft flight cycles:
13566
Circumstances:
Flight ABQ202, operated by Airblue, was scheduled to fly a domestic flight sector Karachi - Islamabad. The aircraft had 152 persons on board, including six crew members. The Captain of aircraft was Captain Pervez Iqbal Chaudhary. Mishap aircraft took-off from Karachi at 0241 UTC (0741 PST) for Islamabad. At time 0441:08, while executing a circling approach for RWY-12 at Islamabad, it flew into Margalla Hills, and crashed at a distance of 9.6 NM, on a radial 334 from Islamabad VOR. The aircraft was completely destroyed and all souls on board the aircraft, sustained fatal injuries.
Probable cause:
- Weather conditions indicated rain, poor visibility and low clouds in and around the airport. The information regarding prevalent weather and the required type of approach on arrival was in the knowledge of aircrew.
- Though aircrew Captain was fit to undertake the flight on the mishap day, yet his portrayed behavior and efficiency was observed to have deteriorated with the inclement weather at BBIAP Islamabad.
- The chain of events leading to the accident in fact started with the commencement of flight, where Captain was heard to be confusing BBIAP Islamabad with JIAP Karachi while planning FMS, and Khanpur Lake (Wah) with Kahuta area during holding pattern. This state continued when Captain of the mishap flight violated the prescribed Circling Approach procedure for RWY-12; by descending below MDA (i.e 2,300 ft instead of maintaining 2,510 ft), losing visual contact with the airfield and instead resorting to fly the non-standard self created PBD based approach, thus transgressing out of protected airspace of maximum of 4.3 NM into Margallas and finally collided with the hills.
- Aircrew Captain not only clearly violated the prescribed procedures for circling approach but also did not at all adhere to FCOM procedures of displaying reaction / response to timely and continuous terrain and pull up warnings (21 times in 70 seconds) – despite these very loud, continuous and executive commands, the Captain failed to register the urgency of the situation and did not respond in kind (break off / pull off).
- F/O simply remained a passive bystander in the cockpit and did not participate as an effective team member failing to supplement / compliment or to correct the errors of his captain assertively in line with the teachings of CRM due to Captain’s behavior in the flight.
- At the crucial juncture both the ATC and the Radar controllers were preoccupied with bad weather and the traffic; the air traffic controller having lost visual contact with the aircraft got worried and sought Radar help on the land line (the ATC does not have a Radar scope); the radar controller having cleared aircraft to change frequency to ATC, got busy with the following traffic. Having been alerted by the ATC, the Radar controller shifted focus to the mishap aircraft – seeing the aircraft very close to NFZ he asked the ATCO (on land line) to ask the aircraft to immediately turn left, which was transmitted. Sensing the gravity of the situation and on seeing the aircraft still heading towards the hills, the Radar controller asked the ATCO on land line “Confirm he has visual contact with the ground. If not, then ask him to immediately climb, and make him execute missed approach”. The ATCO in quick succession asked the Captain if he had contact with the
airfield – on receiving no reply from aircrew the ATCO on Radars prompting asked if he had contact with the ground. Aircrew announced visual contact with the ground which put ATS at ease.
Ensuing discussion and mutual situational update (on land line) continued and, in fact, the ATC call “message from Radar immediately turn left” was though transmitted, but by the time the call got transmitted, the aircraft had crashed at the same time.
- The accident was primarily caused by the aircrew who violated all established procedures for a visual approach for RWY-12 and ignored several calls by ATS Controllers and EGPWS system warnings (21) related to approaching rising terrain and PULL UP.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 737-2P6 in Abu Dhabi: 112 killed

Date & Time: Sep 23, 1983 at 1530 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
A4O-BK
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi – Abu Dhabi – Doha
MSN:
21734
YOM:
1979
Flight number:
GF771
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
106
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
112
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Karachi, the aircraft was approaching Abu Dhabi-Al Bateen Airport in good weather conditions. On short final, the aircraft exploded and crashed shot of runway, bursting into flames. There were no survivors among the 112 occupants. The aircraft was totally destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire.
Probable cause:
It is believed that the accident was the consequence of a bomb that exploded in the cargo compartment. Nevertheless, an ATC controller who was working at Abu Dhabi-Al Bateen Airport at the time of the accident later reported the aircraft had been mistakenly shot down by a surface-to-air missile after UAE soldiers were performing exercises in the vicinity of Al Bateen International Airport.

Crash of a Boeing 707-340C near At Ta'if: 156 killed

Date & Time: Nov 26, 1979 at 0204 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-AWZ
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Kano - Jeddah - Karachi
MSN:
20275/844
YOM:
1970
Flight number:
PK740
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
11
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
145
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
156
Aircraft flight hours:
30710
Circumstances:
The airplane was completing a schedule service from Kano to Karachi with an intermediate stop at Jeddah, carrying 145 passengers and a crew of 11. It departed Jeddah-King Abdulaziz Airport at 0129LT and continued to climb by night and good weather conditions. While cruising at an altitude of 37,000 feet, the captain informed ATC about an in-flight fire and was cleared to descent to 30,000 feet then 4,000 feet at his discretion. Seventeen minutes later, the situation on board became very critical with heavy smoke spreading in the cabin and the crew declared an emergency. While attempting an emergency landing in a desert area, the airplane struck the ground and disintegrated on impact. The wreckage was found about 48 km north of At Ta'if, in a rocky area. None of the 156 occupants survived the crash.
Probable cause:
An in-flight fire in the cabin area which, through its intensity and rapid extension, resulted in panic among the passengers and smoke in the cockpit, eventually incapacitating the flight crew. The cause of the cabin fire was not determined. It was considered that the origin of the cabin fire could have been a leaking gasoline or kerosene stove, carried aboard by Haj pilgrim passengers. Pressure differential could have caused a poorly sealed gasket to leak fuel. A second possibility is an electrical fire, but the rapid extension of the fire was considered difficult to explain because of the electrical circuit protection devices of the Boeing 707. Sabotage was considered as another possibility, but no evidence of use of an incendiary device was found.

Crash of a Boeing 707-340C in Ürümqi

Date & Time: Dec 15, 1971
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-AVZ
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Karachi - Ürümqi
MSN:
20487/847
YOM:
1971
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The descent to Ürümqi-Diwopu Airport was initiated in poor weather conditions due to snow falls. On final, the crew was too high on the glide, causing the plane to land too far down the runway. After touchdown, the airplane was unable to stop within the remaining distance, overran and came to rest few dozen yards farther. All five crew members were slightly injured and the aircraft was destroyed.
Probable cause:
Wrong approach configuration on part of the crew who attempted to land while the aircraft was too high on the glide. As the approach configuration was non compliant, the crew should initiate a go-around manoeuvre.

Crash of a Fokker F27 Friendship 200 near Saindak: 4 killed

Date & Time: Dec 12, 1971
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-ALX
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Zahedan
MSN:
10188
YOM:
1961
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
4
Aircraft flight hours:
22287
Aircraft flight cycles:
26177
Circumstances:
While descending to Zahedan Airport in limited visibility on a cargo flight from Karachi, the airplane struck a mountain and crashed near Saindak, at the Iran-Pakistan border. The aircraft was destroyed and all four crew members were killed. Controlled flight into terrain suspected.