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Crash of a Cessna 500 Citation I in Marietta: 1 killed

Date & Time: Mar 24, 2017 at 1924 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
N8DX
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Cincinnati – Atlanta
MSN:
500-0303
YOM:
1976
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
6000
Aircraft flight hours:
9299
Circumstances:
The private pilot departed on an instrument flight rules flight plan in his twin-engine turbojet airplane. The flight was uneventful until the air traffic controller amended the flight plan, which required the pilot to manually enter the new routing information into the GPS. A few minutes later, the pilot told the controller that he was having problems with the GPS and asked for a direct route to his destination. The controller authorized the direct route and instructed the pilot to descend from 22,000 ft to 6,000 ft, during which time the sound of the autopilot disconnect was heard on the cockpit voice recorder (CVR). During the descent, the pilot told the controller that the airplane had a steering problem and was in the clouds. The pilot was instructed to descend the airplane to 4,100 ft, which was the minimum vectoring altitude. The airplane continued to descend, entered visual meteorological conditions, and then descended below the assigned altitude. The controller queried the pilot about the airplane's low altitude and instructed the pilot to maintain 4,100 ft. The pilot responded that he was unsure if he would be able to climb the airplane back to that altitude due to steering issues. The controller issued a low altitude warning and again advised the pilot to climb back to 4,100 ft. The pilot responded that the autopilot was working again and that he was able to climb the airplane to the assigned altitude. The controller then instructed the pilot to change to another radio frequency, but the pilot responded that he was still having a problem with the GPS. The pilot asked the controller to give him direct routing to the airport. A few minutes later, the pilot told the controller that he was barely able to keep the airplane straight and its wings level. The controller asked the pilot if he had the airport in sight, which he did not. The pilot then declared an emergency and expressed concerns related to identifying the landing runway. Afterward, radio contact between the controller and the pilot was lost. Shortly before the airplane impacted the ground, a witness saw the airplane make a complete 360° roll to the left, enter a steep 90° bank to the left, roll inverted, and enter a vertical nose-down dive. Another witness saw the airplane spiral to the ground. The airplane impacted the front lawn of a private residence, and a postcrash fire ensued.The pilot held a type rating for the airplane, but the pilot's personal logbooks were not available for review. As a result, his overall currency and total flight experience in the accident airplane could not be determined. The airplane was originally certified for operations with a pilot and copilot. To obtain an exemption to operate the airplane as a single pilot, a pilot must successfully complete an approved single-pilot exemption training course annually. The accident airplane was modified, and the previous owner was issued a single-pilot conformity certificate by the company that performed the modifications. However, there was no record indicating that the accident pilot received training under this exemption. Several facilities that have single-pilot exemption training for the accident airplane series also had no record of the pilot receiving training for single-pilot operations in the accident airplane. Therefore, unlikely that the pilot was properly certificated to act as a single-pilot. The GPS was installed in the airplane about 3.5 years before the accident. A friend of the pilot trained him on how to use the GPS. The friend said that the pilot generally was confused about how the unit operated and struggled with pulling up pages and correlating data. The friend of the pilot had flown with him several times and indicated that, if an air traffic controller amended a preprogrammed flight plan while en route, the pilot would be confused with the procedure for amending the flight plan. The friend also said the pilot depended heavily on the autopilot, which was integrated with the GPS, and that he would activate the autopilot immediately after takeoff and deactivate it on short final approach to a runway. The pilot would not trim the airplane before turning on the autopilot because he assumed that the autopilot would automatically trim the airplane, which led to the autopilot working against the mis-trimmed airplane. The friend added that the pilot was "constantly complaining" that the airplane was "uncontrollable." A postaccident examination of the airplane and the autopilot system revealed no evidence of any preimpact deficiencies that would have precluded normal operation. This information suggests that pilot historically had difficulty flying the airplane without the aid of the autopilot. When coupled with his performance flying the airplane during the accident flight without the aid of the autopilot, it further suggests that the pilot was consistently unable to manually fly the airplane. Additionally, given the pilot's previous experience with the GPS installed on the airplane, it is likely that during the accident flight the pilot became confused about how to operate the GPS and ultimately was unable to properly control of the airplane without the autopilot engaged. Based on witness information, it is likely that during the final moments of the flight the pilot lost control of the airplane and it entered an aerodynamic stall. The pilot was then unable to regain control of the airplane as it spun 4,000 ft to the ground.
Probable cause:
The pilot's failure to maintain adequate airspeed while manually flying the airplane, which resulted in the airplane exceeding its critical angle of attack and experiencing an aerodynamic stall. Contributing to the accident was the pilot's inability control the airplane without the aid of the autopilot.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 414 Chancellor in Hillsboro: 2 killed

Date & Time: Apr 8, 1997 at 1533 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
N13MN
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Cincinnati - Hillsboro
MSN:
414-0422
YOM:
1973
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
1500
Aircraft flight hours:
4333
Circumstances:
Witnesses observed the airplane overfly their homes at low altitude in a tight circular pattern. A witness about 1/2 mile from the airport '. . . watched the plane try to make a turn to the left trying to go back west to the Highland County Airport. The plane made a sharp turn, seemed to be having difficulty stabilizing the airplane . . . .' Also, a witness reported that she heard a loud noise, and then she observed an airplane just barely above the trees. The landing gear was down, and the airplane 'kept dipping up and down.' Another witness reported the airplane was 'wobbling left to right,' and then it descended into trees, struck vehicles, came to rest against a tree, and was destroyed by a post crash fire. A person, who flew with the pilot as a safety pilot on several occasions, reported that the pilot had a habit of making steep close-in turns, from downwind to base, to final; and he noticed 'lack in airspeed management during approach.' Examination of the wreckage did not disclose any preimpact failure of the airplane or engine.
Probable cause:
Failure of the pilot to maintain adequate airspeed, while maneuvering, which resulted in an inadvertent stall and collision with trees, vehicles, and the terrain.
Final Report:

Crash of a Mitsubishi MU-2B-60 Marquise in Zwingle: 8 killed

Date & Time: Apr 19, 1993 at 1552 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
N86SD
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Cincinnati - Pierre
MSN:
765
YOM:
1970
Location:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
6
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
8
Captain / Total flying hours:
10607
Captain / Total hours on type:
1922.00
Aircraft flight hours:
4580
Circumstances:
While cruising at FL240, a propeller (prop) hub arm on the left prop failed, releasing the prop blade, which struck a 2nd blade, breaking off its tip. This resulted in a severe engine vibration and shutdown of the left engine. The left engine was forced downward and inboard on its mounts. The cabin depressurized, possibly from blade contact. The flight crew made an emergency descent and received a vector to divert for an ILS approach to Dubuque. The airplane was incapable of maintaining altitude and descended in instrument conditions. Subsequently, it collided with a silo and crashed about 8 miles south of Dubuque. An investigation revealed the left prop hub failed from fatigue that initiated from multiple initiation sites on the inside diameter surface of the hole for the pilot tube. There was evidence that the fatigue properties of the hub were reduced by a combination of factors, including machining marks or scratches, mixed microstructure, corrosion, decarburization, and residual stresses. All eight occupants were killed, among them George Mickelson, 52, Governor of South Dakota.
Probable cause:
The fatigue cracking and fracture of the propeller hub arm. The resultant separation of the hub arm and the propeller blade damaged the engine, nacelle, wing, and fuselage, thereby causing significant degradation to aircraft performance and control that made a successful landing problematic. The cause of the propeller hub arm fracture was a reduction in the fatigue strength of the material because of manufacturing and time-related factors (decarburization, residual stress, corrosion, mixed microstructure, and machining/scoring marks) that reduced the fatigue resistance of the material, probably combined with exposure to higher-than-normal cyclic loads during operation of the propeller at a critical vibration frequency (reactionless mode), which was not appropriately considered during the airplane/propeller certification process.
Final Report:

Crash of a Beechcraft H18 in Kansas City: 1 killed

Date & Time: Apr 1, 1988 at 0750 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N989B
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Cincinnati – Kansas City – Wichita
MSN:
BA-632
YOM:
1962
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
2140
Captain / Total hours on type:
274.00
Aircraft flight hours:
8443
Circumstances:
The cargo flight departed Cincinnati en route to Wichita, KS with an intermediate stop at Kansas City Downtown Airport. The flight progressed normally to a VOR runway 03 instrument approach, circling to runway 01. The pic had been cleared to commence the approach. Tower personnel subsequently advised the pic of a low altitude alert, to which the pic responded he had ground contact. The pic subsequently declared a missed approach, then said, 'I got it all right,' and he requested a 360° turn and landing on runway 01. Witnesses observed the aircraft approach from the west at a low altitude. Then, while over airport property, the aircraft turned sharply. The left wing dropped quickly as the aircraft banked nearly 90°. The aircraft impacted the ramp area 400 feet right of runway 01, in front of a fixed base operator and burst into flames. The aircraft slid about 200 feet before coming to a stop. The company chief pilot stated that the pic was deficient in VOR approaches. The pilot, sole on board, was killed.
Probable cause:
Occurrence #1: abrupt maneuver
Phase of operation: circling (ifr)
Findings
1. (f) minimum descent altitude - below - pilot in command
2. (c) ifr procedure - improper - pilot in command
3. (c) maneuver - improper - pilot in command
4. (c) stall - inadvertent - pilot in command
5. (f) inadequate training - company/operator management
6. (f) missed approach - not performed - pilot in command
----------
Occurrence #2: in flight collision with terrain/water
Phase of operation: descent - uncontrolled
Final Report:

Crash of a Volpar Turboliner 18 in Memphis: 1 killed

Date & Time: Oct 9, 1987 at 2215 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N9231
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Memphis - Cincinnati
MSN:
3829
YOM:
1971
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
1913
Captain / Total hours on type:
64.00
Aircraft flight hours:
18702
Circumstances:
After takeoff pic was told by tower that tail stand, used to prevent aircraft from tipping on tail when loaded, was still attached to aircraft. Pic requested teardrop turn back to departure runway. Approach controller stated he saw mode C indication of 700 feet. Airport elevation is 332 feet. Aircraft was returning to runway 36R when it stalled, recovery was attempted, and aircraft impacted ground prior to completion of level off. Aircraft was 379 lbs over max takeoff weight and cg was at least 3 inches forward of the limit. No record of load manifest was found. Pic had low pic experience and received 2.7 documented flight hours with the operator's instructor pilot including his 135 competency check ride of 1.1 hours. Operator's initial training certification of pic showed 5 hours of flight training. Aircraft was a modified Beechcraft TC-45J initially built in 1943 and rebuilt by Hamilton in 1971. The pilot, sole on board, was killed.
Probable cause:
Occurrence #1: loss of control - in flight
Phase of operation: maneuvering - turn to reverse direction
Findings
1. (f) aircraft preflight - inadequate - pilot in command
2. (f) aircraft weight and balance - not performed - pilot in command
3. (f) lack of total experience in type of aircraft - pilot in command
4. Light condition - bright night
5. (f) inadequate initial training - company/operator management
6. (f) diverted attention - pilot in command
7. (c) airspeed (vs) - not maintained - pilot in command
8. (c) stall - inadvertent - pilot in command
----------
Occurrence #2: in flight collision with terrain/water
Phase of operation: descent - uncontrolled
Final Report:

Crash of a Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain near Petros: 2 killed

Date & Time: Aug 2, 1984 at 1400 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N27948
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Fort Lauderdale - Cincinnati
MSN:
31-7952059
YOM:
1979
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
1100
Circumstances:
The flight departed Fort Lauderdale, FL, on 8-2-84 at approximately 0815 edt for Cincinnati, OH. The aircraft wreckage was found on 11-17-84 on an up slope of big Fodderstack Mountain. The aircraft had contacted a 25 feet tall tree located 200 feet west of the main wreckage. The only known radio contact was recalled by the Monroe County airport manager who stated the pilot radioed to exchange the day's greeting. Exact weather at the accident site could not be determined. However, the airport manager recalled the high terrain being obscured with poor visibility. Both occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
Occurrence #1: in flight encounter with weather
Phase of operation: cruise - normal
Findings
1. (f) weather condition - low ceiling
2. (c) vfr flight into imc - continued - pilot in command
3. (f) lack of total instrument time - pilot in command
----------
Occurrence #2: in flight collision with object
Phase of operation: cruise - normal
Findings
4. (c) clearance - not maintained - pilot in command
5. (f) terrain condition - mountainous/hilly
6. Object - tree(s)
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 401 in Linville: 1 killed

Date & Time: Apr 7, 1980 at 0837 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N9912F
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Myrtle Beach - Cincinnati
MSN:
401-0091
YOM:
1969
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
8919
Captain / Total hours on type:
480.00
Circumstances:
While cruising at an altitude of 5,900 feet in limited visibility due to marginal weather conditions, the twin engine airplane struck the slope of a mountain located near Linville. The aircraft was destroyed and the pilot, sole on board, was killed. At the time of the accident, the visibility was reduced to zero due to low ceiling, rains falls and fog.
Probable cause:
Controlled flight into terrain during normal cruise after the pilot continued VFR flight into adverse weather conditions. The following contributing factors were reported:
- Physical impairment of the pilot,
- Alcoholic impairment of efficiency and judgment,
- Low ceiling,
- Rain,
- Fog,
- Blood ethanol level 90 mg %,
- Hit the mountain at 5,909 feet,
- Mountain obscured.
Final Report:

Crash of a Beechcraft B90 King Air in Yazoo City: 5 killed

Date & Time: Jan 10, 1978 at 1845 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
N388MC
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Cincinnati - Yazoo City
MSN:
LJ-442
YOM:
1969
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Captain / Total flying hours:
4047
Captain / Total hours on type:
3661.00
Circumstances:
On final approach to Yazoo City-Barrier Field, the airplane suffered an engine failure. It entered an uncontrolled descent until it collided with a house located short of runway. The aircraft was destroyed and all five occupants were killed. There were no injuries on the ground.
Probable cause:
Engine failure on final approach due to improper maintenance. The following contributing factors were reported:
- Powerplant - accessory drive assembly: bearing, accessory drive shaft,
- Excessive wear/play,
- Complete engine failure,
- Fire after impact.
Final Report:

Crash of a Piper PA-60 Aerostar (Ted Smith 600) in Mansfield

Date & Time: Dec 10, 1975 at 2215 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N12PB
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Elyria – Cincinnati
MSN:
60-0023-41
YOM:
1969
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
4610
Captain / Total hours on type:
392.00
Circumstances:
While cruising by night on a cargo flight from Elyria to Cincinnati, the pilot encountered technical problems with an engine and was cleared to divert to Mansfield-Lahm Airport. While completing a last turn, the airplane stalled and crashed few miles from the airfield. The aircraft was destroyed and the pilot, sole on board, was seriously injured.
Probable cause:
Powerplant failure due to fuel injection system issue. The following contributing factors were reported:
- Foreign material affecting normal operations,
- Engine loaded up,
- Failed to maintain flying speed,
- Misjudged distance and altitude,
- Airport conditions,
- Complete engine failure,
- Rubber diaphragm ruptured,
- Engine flooded,
- Low approach due to wrong visibility cues-upsloping runway,
- Spun during turn.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 421B Golden Eagle II in Mount Vernon

Date & Time: Dec 1, 1974 at 1730 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N3368Q
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Mount Vernon - Cincinnati
MSN:
421B-0252
YOM:
1972
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
4030
Captain / Total hours on type:
250.00
Circumstances:
The takeoff was attempted from a runway contaminated with snow windrows. During takeoff roll, the twin engine airplane was unstable and the pilot decided to lift off prematurely. The aircraft stalled then collided with a snow bank and crashed in flames. All four occupants were injured, two of them seriously.
Probable cause:
Stall during initial climb after the pilot failed to maintain directional control. The following contributing factors were reported:
- Failed to abort takeoff,
- Failed to maintain flying speed,
- Premature lift off,
- Snow on runway,
- Snow windrows.
Final Report: