Crash of a Rockwell Sabreliner 60 in Rocky Point

Date & Time: Jan 23, 2021
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
XB-JMR
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
306-35
YOM:
1969
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Crashed in unknown circumstances in a lagoon while involved in a contraband flight. Both pilots were uninjured but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. Apparently, both wings were torn off.

Crash of a Socata TBM-900 off Port Antonio: 2 killed

Date & Time: Sep 5, 2014 at 1410 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N900KN
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Rochester - Naples
MSN:
1003
YOM:
2014
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
7100
Captain / Total hours on type:
4190.00
Aircraft flight hours:
97
Circumstances:
The commercial pilot and his wife departed New York in their turboprop airplane on a crosscountry flight to Florida. About 1 hour 40 minutes into the flight and while cruising at flight level (FL) 280, the pilot notified air traffic control (ATC) of an abnormal indication in the airplane and requested a descent to FL180. The responding controller instructed the pilot to descend to FL250 and turn left 30°, and the pilot acknowledged and complied with the instruction; he then again requested a lower altitude. Although the pilot declined emergency handling and did not specify the nature of the problem, the controller independently determined that the flight had encountered a pressurization issue and immediately coordinated with another ATC facility to clear nearby traffic. The controller then issued instructions to the pilot to descend to FL200 and change course; however, the pilot did not comply with the assignments despite acknowledging the instructions multiple times. The pilot's failure to comply with the controller's instructions, his long microphone pauses after concluding a statement over the radio, and his confusion were consistent with cognitive impairment due to hypoxia. Further, the pilot's transmissions to ATC indicated impairment within 2 minutes 30 seconds of reporting the abnormal indication, which is consistent with the Federal Aviation Administration's published time of useful consciousness/effective performance time ranges for the onset of hypoxia. Military airplanes were dispatched about 30 minutes after the pilot's final transmission to ATC to intercept and examine the airplane. The pilots of the military airplanes reported that the airplane appeared to be flying normally at FL250, that both occupants appeared to be asleep or unconscious, and that neither occupant was wearing an oxygen mask. Photographs taken from one of the military airplanes revealed that the airplane's emergency exit door was recessed into the fuselage frame, consistent with a depressurized cabin. The military airplanes escorted the airplane as it continued on a constant course and altitude until it approached Cuban airspace, at which point they discontinued their escort. Radar data indicated that the airplane continued on the same flight track until about 5 hours 48 minutes after takeoff, when it descended to impact in the Caribbean Sea north of Jamaica. The flight's duration was consistent with a departure with full fuel and normal cruise endurance. Some of the wreckage, including fuselage and engine components, was recovered from the ocean floor about 4 months after the accident. Data recovered from nonvolatile memory in the airplane's global air system controller (GASC) indicated that several fault codes associated with the cabin pressurization system were registered during the flight. These faults indicated that the overheat thermal switch (OTSW), which was associated with overheat protection, had activated, which resulted in a shutdown of the engine bleed air supply to the cabin pressurization system. Without a bleed air supply to maintain selected cabin pressure, the cabin altitude would have increased to the altitude of the outside environment over a period of about 4 minutes. The faults recorded by the GASC's nonvolatile memory and associated system alerts/warnings would have been displayed to the pilot, both as discrete system anomaly messages on the crew alerting system (CAS) and as master warning and/or master caution annunciations. A witness report indicated that the pilot was known to routinely monitor cabin altitude while flying in the airplane and in his previous pressurized airplanes. Based on his instrument scanning practices and the airplane's aural warning system, he likely would have observed any CAS message at or near its onset. Thus, the CAS messages and the associated alerts were likely the precipitating event for the pilot's call to ATC requesting a lower altitude. The pilot was likely not familiar with the physiological effects of hypoxia because he had not recently been in an altitude chamber for training, but he should have been familiar with the airplane's pressurization system emergency and oxygen mask donning procedures because he had recently attended a transition course for the accident airplane make and model that covered these procedures. However, the pressurization system training segment of the 5-day transition course comprised only about 90 minutes of about 36 total hours of training, and it is unknown if the pilot would have retained enough information to recognize the significance of the CAS messages as they appeared during the accident flight, much less recall the corresponding emergency procedures from memory. Coupled with the pilot's reported diligence in using checklists, this suggests that he would have attempted a physical review of the emergency procedures outlined in the Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH). A review of the 656-page POH for the airplane found that only one of the four emergency checklist procedures that corresponded to pressurization system-related CAS messages included a step to don an oxygen mask, and it was only a suggestion, not a mandatory step. The combined lack of emergency guidance to immediately don an oxygen mask and the rapid increase in the cabin altitude significantly increased the risk of hypoxia, a condition resistant to self-diagnosis, especially for a person who has not recently experienced its effects in a controlled environment such as an altitude chamber. Additionally, once the pilot reported the problem indication to ATC, he requested a descent to FL180 instead of 10,000 ft as prescribed by the POH. In a second transmission, he accepted FL250 and declined priority handling. These two separate errors were either early signs of cognitive dysfunction due to hypoxia or indications that the pilot did not interpret the CAS messages as a matter related to the pressurization system. Although the cabin bleed-down rate was 4 minutes, the pilot showed evidence of deteriorating cognitive abilities about 2 minutes 30 seconds after he initially reported the problem to ATC. Ultimately, the pilot had less than 4 minutes to detect the pressurization system failure CAS messages, report the problem to ATC, locate the proper procedures in a voluminous POH, and complete each procedure, all while suffering from an insidious and mentally impairing condition that decreased his cognitive performance over time. Following the accident, the airplane manufacturer revised the emergency procedures for newly manufactured airplanes to require flight crews to don their oxygen masks as the first checklist item in each of the relevant emergency checklists. Further, the manufacturer has stated that it plans to issue the same revisions for previous models in 2017. The airplane manufacturer previously documented numerous OTSW replacements that occurred between 2008 and after the date of the accident. Many of these units were removed after the GASC systems in their respective airplanes generated fault codes that showed an overheat of the bleed air system. Each of the OTSWs that were tested at the manufacturer's facility showed results that were consistent with normal operating units. Additionally, the OTSW from the accident airplane passed several of the manufacturer's functional tests despite the presence of internal corrosion from sea water. Further investigation determined that the pressurization system design forced the GASC to unnecessarily discontinue the flow of bleed air into the cabin if the bleed air temperature exceeded an initial threshold and did not subsequently fall below a secondary threshold within 30 seconds. According to the airplane manufacturer, the purpose of this design was to protect the structural integrity of the airplane, the system, and the passengers in case of overheat detection. As a result of this accident and the ensuing investigation, the manufacturer made changes to the programming of the GASC and to the airplane's wiring that are designed to reduce the potential for the GASC to shut off the flow of bleed air into the cabin and to maximize the bleed availability. Contrary to its normal position for flight, the cockpit oxygen switch was found in the "off" position, which prevents oxygen from flowing to the oxygen masks. A witness's description of the pilot's before starting engine procedure during a previous flight showed that he may not have precisely complied with the published procedure for turning on the oxygen switch and testing the oxygen masks. However, as the pilot reportedly was diligent in completing preflight inspections and checklists, the investigation could not determine why the cockpit oxygen switch was turned off. Further, because the oxygen masks were not observed on either occupant, the position of the oxygen switch would not have made a difference in this accident.
Probable cause:
The design of the cabin pressurization system, which made it prone to unnecessary shutdown, combined with a checklist design that prioritized troubleshooting over ensuring that the pilot was sufficiently protected from hypoxia. This resulted in a loss of cabin pressure that rendered the pilot and passenger unconscious during cruise flight and eventually led to an in-flight loss of power due to fuel exhaustion over the open ocean.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 737-800 in Kingston

Date & Time: Dec 22, 2009 at 2222 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N977AN
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Washington DC - Miami - Kingston
MSN:
29550/1019
YOM:
2001
Flight number:
AA331
Country:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
148
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
American Airlines Flight AA331, a Boeing 737-823 in United States registration N977AN, carrying 148 passengers, including three infants, and a crew of six, was being operated under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121. The aircraft departed Miami (KMIA) at 20:22 Eastern Standard Time (EST) on 22 December 2009 (01:22 Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) on 23 December 2009) on an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight plan, on a scheduled flight to Norman Manley International Airport (NMIA), ICAO identifier: MKJP, Kingston, Jamaica. The aircraft landed at NMIA on runway 12 in the hours of darkness at 22:22 EST (03:22 UTC) in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) following an Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach flown using the heads up display (HUD) and becoming visual at approximately two miles from the runway. The aircraft touched down at approximately 4,100 feet on the 8,911 foot long runway in heavy rain and with a 14 knot left quartering tailwind. The crew was unable to stop the aircraft on the remaining 4,811 feet of runway and it overran the end of the runway at 62 knots ground speed. The aircraft broke through a fence, crossed above a road below the runway level and came to an abrupt stop on the sand dunes and rocks between the road and the waterline of the Caribbean Sea. There was no post-crash fire. The aircraft was destroyed, its fuselage broken into three sections, while the left landing gear collapsed. The right engine and landing gear were torn off, the left wingtip was badly damaged and the right wing fuel tanks were ruptured, leaking jet fuel onto the beach sand. One hundred and thirty four (134) passengers suffered minor or no injury, while 14 were seriously injured, though there were no life-threatening injuries. None of the flight crew and cabin crew was seriously injured, and they were able to assist the passengers during the evacuation.
Probable cause:
Jamaican Director General of Civil Aviation Col. Oscar Derby, stated in the week following the accident, that the jet touched down about halfway down the 8,910-foot (2,720 m) runway. He also noted that the 737-800 was equipped with a head-up display. Other factors that were under investigation included "tailwinds, and a rain soaked runway;" the runway in question was not equipped with rain-dispersing grooves common at larger airports. The aircraft held a relatively heavy fuel load at the time of landing; it was carrying enough fuel for a round trip flight back to the US. The FDR later revealed that the aircraft touched down some 4,100 feet (1,200 m) down the 8,910-foot (2,720 m) long runway. Normally touchdown would be between 1,000 feet (300 m) and 1,500 feet (460 m). The aircraft was still traveling at 72 miles per hour (116 km/h) when it departed the end of the runway. The aircraft landed with a 16 miles per hour (26 km/h) tailwind, just within its limit of 17 miles per hour (27 km/h).
Final Report:

Crash of a Rockwell Grand Commander 680 off Kingston: 2 killed

Date & Time: Dec 3, 1984
Registration:
N6806S
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
680-301-6
YOM:
1956
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Crashed in unknown circumstances in the sea off Kingston, killing both occupants.

Crash of a Rockwell Aero Commander 520 in Clarendon: 2 killed

Date & Time: Mar 9, 1983
Registration:
N315UT
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
520-6
YOM:
1952
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Crashed in unknown circumstances killing both occupants.

Crash of a Rockwell Turbo Commander 680 near Dumfries

Date & Time: Nov 15, 1982
Registration:
N89DA
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
680-1702-78
YOM:
1967
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The twin engine airplane crashed in unknown circumstances in a field near Dumfries, about 15 km southeast of Montego Bay, Jamaica. Both pilots were not found and the airplane was damaged beyond repair. It was engaged in an illegal contraband mission.

Crash of a Beechcraft 65-80 Queen Air off Port Maria: 1 killed

Date & Time: Aug 25, 1980 at 0640 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
N218K
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
LD-98
YOM:
1963
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
32000
Circumstances:
The pilot, sole on board, departed Boscobel-Ian Fleming Airport on an illegal flight. While cruising along the shore, the twin engine airplane went out of control and crashed in unknown circumstances into the sea off Port Maria. The aircraft was not recovered and the pilot was presumed dead. The airplane was carrying a load of marijuana at the time of the accident.
Probable cause:
As the wreckage was not found, the exact cause of the accident could not be determined.
Final Report:

Crash of a Douglas DC-6A off Kingston: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jul 20, 1979
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N43865
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Gainesville - Kingston
MSN:
44657/623
YOM:
1955
Country:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The four engine airplane was completing a cargo flight from Gainesvilles, Florida, to Kingston, Jamaica, carrying four people and a load of eggs. On final approach, the airplane was too high on the glide so the captain abandoned the approach and initiated a go-around. Few minutes later, during a second attempt to land, the airplane was too low and struck the water surface. It crash landed into shallow water (about 10 feet) some 1,500 meters short of runway. Two occupants were killed while two others were seriously injured.

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter 300 at Kingston AFB: 2 killed

Date & Time: May 17, 1978 at 0740 LT
Registration:
JDFT-6
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Kingston - Kingston
MSN:
531
YOM:
1977
Country:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a local training mission at Up Park Camp Airbase in Kingston. Following two successful landings, the crew initiated a third approach with the left engine voluntarily inoperative to simulate a failure. On final, the airplane banked left then lost height and crashed in flames on a cricket pitch close to the airfield. The aircraft was destroyed and both pilots were killed.

Crash of a Piper PA-31-310 Navajo off Kingston: 1 killed

Date & Time: Dec 16, 1977 at 2003 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N483LC
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Barranquilla - Tampa
MSN:
31-426
YOM:
1969
Country:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
715
Circumstances:
While approaching the Jamaican coast on a flight from Barranquilla to Tampa, both engines failed. The pilot lost control of the airplane that crashed into the sea off Kingston. SAR operations were initiated but no trace of the aircraft nor the pilot was ever found.
Probable cause:
Due to lack of evidences, the cause of the accident could not be determined.
Final Report: