Crash of a Tupolev TU-154M in Burdakovka: 145 killed

Date & Time: Jul 4, 2001 at 0208 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
RA-85845
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Yekaterinburg – Irkutsk – Vladivostok
MSN:
86A735
YOM:
1986
Flight number:
XF352
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
136
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
145
Aircraft flight hours:
20953
Aircraft flight cycles:
11387
Circumstances:
The airplane departed Yekaterinburg Airport on a regular schedule flight (XF352) to Vladivostok with an intermediate stop at Irkutsk. The flight departed Yekaterinburg at 1947LT and climbed to the assigned cruising altitude of 10,100 metres. Some three hours into the flight, at 0150LT, the crew started the descent to Irkutsk Intl Airport. The copilot was the pilot-in-command. At 0205LT, the crew reported at 2,100 metres with the runway in sight. At this time, the aircraft' speed was 540 km/h. The maximum speed at which the landing gear may be lowered was 400 km/h. At 0206:56 the airplane leveled off at 900 metres with an airspeed still at 420 km/h. The first officer asked for gear down and the speed further decreased to 395 km/h with engines at idle. When the gear was down and locked, the airplane entered a left bank angle of 20-23°. The airspeed continued to drop to 365 km/h while the recommended speed was 370 km/h at this stage of the flight. Power was added slowly. This was only just sufficient for maintaining an altitude of 850 metres at 355-360 km/h. At 0207:46, while still in the left hand turn, the angle of attack increased to 16,5° because the autopilot attempted to maintain altitude with a decreasing speed. An aural warning sounded, informing the crew about a high angle of attack. The first officer attempted to correct this by using the control column and disconnected the autopilot. Because he deflected the control column to the left, the left bank increased to the maximum permissible value of -30° to -44°, and then to -48°. In a nose down attitude, the speed increased to 400 km/h then the aircraft entered clouds. By night, the crew lost visual contact with the ground and was not able to observe the natural horizon. In such conditions, the captain took over controls but alternately deflected the steering wheel to the left and right. An intensive deflection of steering control to the right caused a positive angular acceleration of +4,4° per second. The captain reacted by deflecting the steering wheel to the left again. The first officer now realized that the airplane was in a severe left bank of -45° and indicated that they should be rolling to the right. Because of an increase in vertical descent rate of 20 metres per seconds, one of the crew members pulled the control column. The airplane pitched up rapidly then entered a stall and a subsequent flat spin before crashing in an open field 22 seconds later. The aircraft was totally destroyed by impact forces and a post crash fire and all 145 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The accident was the consequence of a wrong approach configuration on part of the flying crew. The following contributing factors were identified:
- Poor control actions on part of the crew, which caused the aircraft to enter a super critical angle of attack followed by a stall and a spin,
- Violation of interactions by the crew regarding the separation of responsibilities for piloting established by the pilot-in-command,
- Lack of proper control to maintain flight parameters during the approach, in reference to the TU-154 flight operations manual,
- Poor crew interactions.

Crash of an Ilyushin II-76TD in Irkutsk

Date & Time: Jul 26, 1999 at 1346 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
RA-76819
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Tianjin – Irkutsk – Perm – Moscow
MSN:
10134 09274
YOM:
1991
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
2882
Aircraft flight cycles:
1177
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Tianjin on a cargo flight to Moscow with intermediate stops in Irkutsk and Perm, carrying a load of 49,750 kilos of various goods and seven crew members. At Irkutsk-Intl Airport, 38 tons of fuel were uplifted and the crew calculated 30,040 kilos for the cargo, giving a total weight of 170 tons, about 4 tons below the MTOW. During the takeoff roll, after a course of 2,000 metres, at a speed of 225 km/h, the captain started the rotation. The aircraft lifted up and flew for about 4 seconds when the captain requested gear up. At a speed of 250 km/h, the aircraft passed the runway end and adopted a 16° angle of attack. Then the aircraft' speed decreased when the flight engineer reduced the power on all four engines and activated the thrust reverser systems on both left engines n°1 and 2. The aircraft rolled to the left, collided with a building containing an electrical transformer and came to rest 1,476 metres past the runway end, bursting into flames. All seven occupants were injured, two seriously. The aircraft was destroyed.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the total weight of the aircraft at the time of the accident was 198-200 tons which means 24-26 tons above MTOW. The cargo manifest showed a total weight of 49,750 kilos of various goods upon departure from Tianjin Airport but only 30,040 kilos upon departure from Irkutsk Airport while no cargo was unloaded. The following contributing factors were identified:
- A miscalculation of the mass and balance,
- Poor flight planning,
- Poor crew coordination.

Crash of an Antonov AN-74-200 in Mirny

Date & Time: Dec 10, 1996 at 2357 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
RA-74037
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Mirny - Irkutsk
MSN:
470 98 950
YOM:
1995
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
369
Aircraft flight cycles:
176
Circumstances:
Just after liftoff from Mirny Airport, while in initial climb, the reverse thrust system deployed on the right engine. The aircraft banked right, causing the right wing tip to struck the runway surface. Out of control, the aircraft crash landed, veered off runway and came to rest against a building. All 12 occupants escaped with minor injuries while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the reverse thrust system on the right engine accidentally deployed after takeoff due to a mechanical failure of unknown origin. Nevertheless, investigations confirmed that a warning light came on in the cockpit prior to departure but the crew failed to identify this warning because he did not follow the pre-departure checklist.

Crash of an Antonov AN-12B near Irkutsk

Date & Time: Jul 14, 1992
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
CCCP-11111
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Magadan - Irkutsk
MSN:
01 347 906
YOM:
1971
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Aircraft flight hours:
32700
Aircraft flight cycles:
12972
Circumstances:
The four engine aircraft departed Magadan Airport on a cargo flight to Irkutsk, carrying one loadmaster, six crew members and a load of 11 tons of fish. For financial reasons, the crew refused to make a refueling stop at Lensk Airport and decided to continue to Bratsk. Unfortunately, weather conditions worsened at Bratsk and a landing was impossible. In such conditions, the captain decided to continue to Irkutsk and later shut down both engines n°1 and 4 to save fuel. While descending to Irkutsk, both engines n°2 and 3 failed due to fuel exhaustion. The crew reduced his altitude and attempted an emergency landing in an open field located 48 km from Irkutsk Airport. The aircraft belly landed, slid for few dozen metres and eventually came to rest, broken in two. All seven occupants escaped uninjured.
Probable cause:
Engine failure due to fuel exhaustion.

Crash of a Tupolev TU-154B-2 in Krasnoyarsk: 110 killed

Date & Time: Dec 23, 1984 at 1815 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-85338
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Krasnoarsk - Irkutsk
MSN:
79A338
YOM:
1979
Flight number:
SU3519
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
104
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
110
Aircraft flight hours:
8955
Aircraft flight cycles:
3581
Circumstances:
After takeoff from Krasnoyarsk-Cheremshanka Airport, while climbing to an altitude of 2,040 meters at a speed of 480 km/h, the right engine (engine n°3) suffered an uncontained failure and caught fire. The crew declared an emergency and was cleared to return for an emergency landing. On final approach, the aircraft banked right then nosed down and crashed at a speed of 425 km/h 3,200 meters short of runway threshold and disintegrated on impact, some 11 seconds prior to landing. A passenger was seriously injured while 110 other occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the failure of the right engine was the consequence of a fatigue failure of the first stage low pressure compressor disk due to metallurgical and manufacture defect. A fire erupted in the right engine and quickly spread to the right wing and the engine n°2 because the crew forgot to close the fuel valve.

Crash of a Yakovlev Yak-40 in Zheleznogorsk: 33 killed

Date & Time: Sep 18, 1981 at 1213 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-87455
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Irkutsk - Zheleznogorsk
MSN:
9 43 12 36
YOM:
1974
Flight number:
SU652
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
29
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
33
Aircraft flight hours:
10455
Aircraft flight cycles:
9784
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Irkutsk-Magan Airport, the crew started the descent to Zheleznogorsk-Ilimskiy Airport in relative good weather conditions with a horizontal visibility of 20 km. On final, at an altitude of 400 meters, the three engine airplane collided with a Soviet Air Force Mil Mi-8 helicopter registered CCCP-22268. Inbound from Bratsk, the helicopter was completing a training mission with seven people on board. Following the collision, both aircraft dove into the ground and crashed in a wooded and hilly terrain located about 11 km from the airport, bursting into flames. All 40 occupants in both aircraft were killed.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the collision was the consequence of a poor ATC surveillance, causing both aircraft to initiate an approach without ensuring that they each maintained a minimum separation in accordance with published procedures. This situation allowed the helicopter to cut off the approach path of the aircraft. The lack of radio communications between the three parties concerned remained a contributing factor.

Crash of an Antonov AN-30B near Vidim

Date & Time: Dec 25, 1980
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
88
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Chita – Irkutsk – Bratsk
MSN:
08 08
YOM:
1975
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a flight from Chita to Bratsk with an intermediate stop in Irkutsk. While descending to Bratsk Airport, the crew was instructed to divert to Zheleznogorsk-Ilimski Airport because weather conditions at Bratsk Airport were below minimums. Few minutes later, for unknown reasons, the crew decided to return to Bratsk when the airplane ran out of fuel. The left engine flamed out so the crew attempted an emergency landing on the iced Tareva Bay located on the north shore of the Bratsk Reservoir, about 40 km southwest of Vidim. All six crew members escaped with minor injuries while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Engine failure caused by a fuel exhaustion.

Crash of a PZL-Mielec AN-2 near Bratsk

Date & Time: Aug 9, 1980
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-09657
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Irkutsk – Bratsk
MSN:
1G75-41
YOM:
1966
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
0
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
En route from Irkutsk to Bratsk, weather conditions worsened with thunderstorms. The crew deviated from the prescribed route when few minutes later, the fuel alarm sounded. The crew attempted an emergency landing when the airplane crash landed in a wooded area. There were no casualties but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Low fuel conditions forced the crew to attempt an emergency landing. The weather forecast bulletin transmitted to the crew did not reflect the truth and did not mention any thunderstorm activity en route.

Crash of an Avia 14 in Vitim: 39 killed

Date & Time: Jul 20, 1977
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-52096
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Vitim - Irkutsk
MSN:
086 806109
YOM:
1958
Flight number:
SU002B
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
34
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
39
Aircraft flight hours:
20464
Aircraft flight cycles:
20467
Circumstances:
The takeoff was attempted from a dirt runway with puddles. After a course of 345 meters, the pilot-in-command started the rotation and the nose gear left the ground. 150 meters further, the right main gear struck two cones located on the right side of the runway. The airplane went off runway then took off after a course of 945 meters. During initial climb, after a course of 200 meters and at an altitude of 14 meters, the airplane struck trees, stalled and crashed in flames in a wooded area. A passenger was injured while 39 other occupants were killed. The aircraft was destroyed by a post crash fire.
Probable cause:
The crew attempted to takeoff from an impassable runway with a tailwind component.

Crash of a Tupolev TU-104A in Irkutsk: 24 killed

Date & Time: Feb 9, 1976 at 0805 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-42327
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Irkutsk – Novosibirsk – Sverdlovsk – Leningrad
MSN:
6 66 002 01
YOM:
1956
Flight number:
SU3739
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
10
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
104
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
24
Aircraft flight hours:
22069
Aircraft flight cycles:
10308
Circumstances:
At liftoff, the right wing dropped and the airplane rolled to the right to an angle of 70°, causing the right wing to struck the snow covered ground 129 metres to the right of the runway. Out of control, the airplane crossed a taxiway, passed behind an air Koryo TU-154 that just landed (some debris struck the TU-154) and came to rest in flames, broken in three, 232 metres further. The wreckage was found 180 metres southeast of the runway end. 78 people, among them a stewardess, were injured, 12 people were unhurt. 24 occupants were killed, 15 passengers and nine crew members.
Probable cause:
The loss of control after rotation was caused by the combination of an asymmetrical fueling and pilot errors. It was determined that there was a difference of 1,500 kg of fuel between both wing tanks; 1,500 kg more in the right wing tank than the left wing tank, causing an excessive weight in the right wing. An excessive angle of attack after rotation above the allowable values and the lack of reaction from the pilot-in-command who failed to correct the situation for a period of eight seconds, caused the aircraft to reach an excessive right roll angle of 70° and to crash.