Crash of an Ilyushin II-76TD in Dushanbe

Date & Time: Dec 30, 2004 at 0348 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ER-IBM
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Billund – Baku – Kaboul
MSN:
00334 48390
YOM:
1983
Flight number:
RIN922
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The Ilyushin 76 was chartered to fly a consignment of 28938 kg of humanitarian aid from Billund, Denmark to Kabul, Afghanistan. The airplane departed Billund at 18:00 and landed at Baku, Azerbaijan for a refueling stop. Visibility at Kabul was reported as 3000 m, and forecast worsening to 1200 m between 00:00 and 06:00 h due to snow and haze. Minima for Kabul airport however were a visibility of 5000 m and a cloud base at 450 m. The captain nevertheless departed Baku. While approaching Kabul the weather was reported to be: wind 340 degrees at 4 kts, visibility 2000 m, 1-2 octas clouds at 480 m, 5-7 octas clouds at 3000 m and a QNH of 1020 hPa. During the approach low clouds were moving in from the north. The visibility was limited to 500 m in fog and the wind direction changed. The crew of the Ilyushin were not informed of these changed values. The approach was continued and flaps and gear were selected down. At decision height the spoilers were extended and the descent was continued. The captain ordered the spoilers to be retracted, but this command was not carried out. At a height of 310 m, 4230 m short of the runway 29 threshold, the flaps were selected down to 43 degrees. The Il-76 was at that stage 365 m to the right of the extended centreline. The flight descended below the glideslope until it contacted the ground 910 m short of the runway threshold, at a speed of 230 km/h. The left undercarriage was destroyed and separated from the aircraft. The lower aft fuselage and cargo door were severely damaged and the pressure in the no. 1 and no. 2 hydraulic systems fell. The crew applied takeoff power, retracted the spoilers and selected flaps back to 30 degrees. The aircraft climbed away and the captain decided to head for Termez, Uzbekistan, but this airport was closed due to fog. It was decided to continue to Dushanbe, Tajikistan. The airplane made a low pass over the field so the air traffic controllers could observe the nature of the damage. A forced landing was then carried out.
Probable cause:
The following findings were identified:
- Disturbance in the work of the command-supervisory composition of the "Airline Transport Incorporation" company, that led to the failure to present the crew with AIP information of the Republic of Afghanistan about the Kabul Airport minima and the special features of the approach to this airport, as presented in the "Jeppesen", valid on 30.12.04;
- Decision making by crew and the decision to carry out an approach under below-minima conditions; unsatisfactory crew interaction during the final stage of the approach, which led to the loss of height, the failure to retract the spoilers, the descent below the established glide path, the collision of aircraft with a ground-based structure and the late spool-up of the engines to takeoff power;
- Deficiencies in the weather support of the flight, in that the crew were not given a visibility forecast, which did not allow crew to estimate the level of hazard of a change in the meteorological conditions.

Crash of a Tupolev TU-154B-1 in Sharjah: 85 killed

Date & Time: Dec 15, 1997 at 1835 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
EY-85281
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Dushanbe - Sharjah
MSN:
78A281
YOM:
1978
Flight number:
TZK3183
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
79
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
85
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight, the aircraft entered the UAE airspace and was cleared by Dubai ATC to successively descend to FL170, 100, 060 and 025 via heading 190. Passing 3,460 feet on descent, the crew was cleared to continue to 1,500 feet when, at an altitude of 1,800 feet, the aircraft entered an area of turbulences. The level of 1,500 feet was reached 15 km from the runway 30 threshold. For unknown reasons, the crew failed to report he was passing 1,500 feet and was then instructed to continue via heading 270 for the final approach to runway 30. In a relative limited visibility, the crew initiated a right turn at a speed of 400 km/h then lowered the landing gear. At an altitude of 820 feet, an alarm sounded in the cockpit, informing the crew about an excessive angle of attack. The captain corrected the pitch from 20° to 14° when few seconds later, at an altitude of 690 feet, the aircraft entered a second area of turbulences. The captain realized his altitude was insufficient and requested an increase of engine power when the aircraft struck the ground and crashed 13 km short of runway, bursting into flames. The copilot was the only survivor while 85 other occupants were killed. The aircraft disintegrated on impact.
Probable cause:
The accident was the consequence of a controlled flight into terrain.
The following findings were reported:
- The crew failed to follow the approach published procedures,
- The crew continued the approach below the MDA until the aircraft collided with terrain,
- The crew failed to proceed to the usual approach briefing and checks,
- Lack of visibility due to the night,
- Crew fatigue,
- Lack of crew mutual crosscheck during descent,
- Lack of crew coordination,
- Turbulences in the approach path,
- Non compliance to published procedures.

Crash of a Yakovlev Yak-40 in Khorugh: 82 killed

Date & Time: Aug 28, 1993 at 1046 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
EY-87995
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Khorugh - Dushanbe
MSN:
9 54 19 44
YOM:
1975
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
81
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
82
Circumstances:
During takeoff roll at Khorugh Airport, at Vr speed, the crew started the rotation but the aircraft failed to respond and did not lift off. It continued at high speed, overran, collided with a concrete wall located 150 metres past the runway end and eventually crashed in the Pyanj River. Four passengers were rescued while 82 other occupants were killed, most of them woman, children and soldiers.
Probable cause:
The accident occurred during the Tajik Civil War. It was determined that soldiers forced the crew to embark as many passengers as possible while the Yak-40 is certified fox max 32 passengers. At the time of the accident were 81 passengers on board. As the total weight of the aircraft was 3 tons above MTOW, it was impossible to take off in such conditions.

Crash of a PZL-Mielec AN-28 in Lyakhsh

Date & Time: Jan 3, 1992
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-28706
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Dushanbe - Lyakhsh
MSN:
1AJ006-16
YOM:
1989
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
11
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft was completing a special flight from Dushanbe to Lyakhsh on behalf of the Tajik Civil Aviation Department. For unknown reasons, the crew continued the approach at an insufficient altitude when the unstabilized aircraft struck the ground 210 metres short of runway and 50 metres to the right of its extended centerline. On impact, the undercarriage were torn off and the aircraft came to rest. All 13 occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Wrong approach configuration.

Crash of a Yakovlev Yak-40 near Dushanbe: 29 killed

Date & Time: Jun 12, 1980 at 1344 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-87689
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Leninabad - Dushanbe
MSN:
9 91 04 03
YOM:
1969
Flight number:
SU088W
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
25
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
29
Circumstances:
The three engine aircraft deviated from the prescribed flight path by 67 km while circumnavigating a thunderstorm over the mountains with neither crew nor ATC realizing the deviation. At this time, the radio compass did not work properly due to the interference caused by the proximity of the thunderstorm, and the wind component was different than forecast. When the crew reported overflying the outer marker, the aircraft was in fact still 43 km away from it. While descending in clouds, the aircraft crashed at a height of 2,840 metres into the slope of a mountain located 44 km northwest of Dushanbe Airport. All 29 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
According to officials, the pilots have been hampered in their actions by the lack of visibility caused by poor weather conditions that remains a contributing factor. It is believed that the initial information provided by pilots to air traffic controllers were false and could have misled them. However, the assistance provided by air traffic controllers was insufficient and they did not proceed to any fix point control that should let them identifying the wrong position of the aircraft and thus informing the crew accordingly.

Crash of an Ilyushin II-18V near Leninabad: 79 killed

Date & Time: Feb 24, 1973 at 0737 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-75712
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Dushanbe - Leninabad - Moscow
MSN:
189 0018 04
YOM:
1959
Flight number:
SU630
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
71
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
79
Aircraft flight hours:
20404
Aircraft flight cycles:
9590
Circumstances:
While cruising at an altitude of 6,600 meters, the crew received the permission to descent to 4,500 meters when the automatic pilot system was deactivated. Suddenly, the airplane banked left to an angle of 90° then entered a dive. At an altitude of 2,200 meters, due to excessive g loads, the left wing separated and the aircraft caught fire. Out of control, it crashed at a speed of 840 km/h in an open field located 8,4 km southeast of Buston Station, about 38 km northwest of Leninabad Airport. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 79 occupants have been killed.
Probable cause:
The exact cause of the accident could not be determined with certainty. However, the assumption that the loss of control, that occurred just after the automatic pilot system has been deactivated, was caused by the failure of an attitude indicator was not ruled out.

Crash of an Antonov AN-2 near Murghob: 6 killed

Date & Time: Sep 7, 1966 at 1235 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-79816
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Dushanbe - Murghob
MSN:
1160 473 04
YOM:
1961
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
4
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
6
Aircraft flight hours:
5087
Aircraft flight cycles:
7483
Circumstances:
On a flight from Dushanbe to Murghob in support of a geological expedition, a fire erupted (probably started by an acetone spill) while the aircraft was flying through the gorge of the river Murghob. The crew attempted a forced landing near the confluence of the rivers Murghob and Zapadny Pshart, some 60 km west of Murghob, but while flying a steep left turn, the aircraft collided with the northern slope of the gorge and crashed. Both pilots and all 4 passengers were killed. The wreckage was found two days later.
Probable cause:
In-flight fire caused by an accidental spill of acetone in the cabin.

Crash of a Lisunov LI-2 near Rushan: 7 killed

Date & Time: Jul 6, 1953 at 0620 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-L4027
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Khorugh – Stalinabad
MSN:
184 299 05
YOM:
1948
Flight number:
SU878
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
3
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
7
Aircraft flight hours:
1477
Circumstances:
At 0613LT, while cruising at an altitude of 4,000 meters, the crew informed ATC he just passed over the city of Rushan eight minutes earlier. Shortly later, weather conditions deteriorated and the crew encountered clouds and low visibility. Now at an altitude of 4,800 meters, the aircraft lost height due to strong downdraft and hit the south slope of a mountain located near the Yauza Pass located about 15 km northwest of Rushan. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all seven occupants were killed. The wreckage was found two days later at an altitude of 4,800 meters, approx 100 meters below the summit.
Probable cause:
The aircraft lost height due to downdraft and at the time of the accident, it was off course because the captain decided to modify his route for undetermined reasons.

Crash of a Junkers JU.52/3m near Stalinabad: 3 killed

Date & Time: Jan 14, 1945
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
CCCP-L46
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Stalinabad – Kulyab
MSN:
6053
YOM:
0
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
3
Circumstances:
On a cargo flight from Stalinabad to Kulyab when the right wing caught fire some 20 minutes into the flight (probably due to a leak in a fuel pipe). The fuel tanks in the right wing exploded, the aircraft dove into the ground and crashed into rocks in the Rangon Mountain Range located southeast of Stalinabad. All three crew members were killed.
Probable cause:
The Tadjik investigation commission reported that the accident was caused by several errors committed by the crew. The NII GVF inspection disagreed with these results and reported that the crash may have been caused by a technical issue on a fuel line (carburetor and/or collector) linked to the right BMW-132 engine.