Region

Crash of a Piper PA-31-310 Navajo C in Zielona Góra: 1 killed

Date & Time: Nov 24, 2016 at 1200 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
D-IFBU
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
MSN:
31T-8012050
YOM:
1980
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
9418
Aircraft flight hours:
7371
Aircraft flight cycles:
6641
Circumstances:
Just after liftoff, while in initial climb, the aircraft nosed down and hit the grassy runway surface. Upon impact, the nose was destroyed and both engines were sheared off. The aircraft came to rest on its belly and was partially destroyed. The pilot, who was performing a positioning flight to Germany to pick up passengers, was killed.
Probable cause:
The pilot mistakenly retracted the undercarriage at rotation. There was no immediate decision of the pilot to abandon the takeoff procedure when both propellers contacted the runway surface.
Final Report:

Crash of a Piper PA-31P Pressurized Navajo near Częstochowa: 11 killed

Date & Time: Jul 5, 2014 at 1618 LT
Registration:
N11WB
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Częstochowa - Częstochowa
MSN:
31P-7630005
YOM:
1976
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
11
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
11
Circumstances:
The twin engine aircraft was engaged in a training mission with one pilot and 11 skydivers on board for a local Parachuting Club. Shortly after takeoff from Częstochowa-Rudniki Airport, while climbing, it appears the pilot encountered problems to maintain a correct rate of climb. The aircraft crash landed in flames in a prairie located in Topólow, some 2 km northwest of the airport. Local residents were able to rescue a passenger who was seriously injured but all 11 other occupants were trapped in the burning cabin. The Piper PA-31P Pressurized Navajo was recently modified to carry skydivers. According to eyes witnesses, one of the engine was misfiring shortly before the aircraft crashed.

Crash of a PZL-Mielec AN-2T in Olsztyn

Date & Time: Jun 8, 2014 at 1130 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SP-FDZ
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Olsztyn - Olsztyn
MSN:
1G74-73
YOM:
1967
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Crew was performing a local training flight with skydivers on board. After all passenger bailed out, both pilots were returning to the airport of Olsztyn-Dajtki when the single engine aircraft crashed in a wooded area located some 200 meters short of runway. Both occupants were injured while the aircraft was seriously damaged.

Crash of a Boeing 767-35DER in Warsaw

Date & Time: Nov 1, 2011 at 1439 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SP-LPC
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Newark - Warsaw
MSN:
28656/659
YOM:
1997
Flight number:
LOT016
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
10
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
221
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
15980
Captain / Total hours on type:
13307.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
9431
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1981
Aircraft flight hours:
85429
Aircraft flight cycles:
8002
Circumstances:
On November 1, 2011 a passenger LO 16 flight of B767-300ER airplane, registration marks SP-LPC, was scheduled from KEWR to EPWA. The Pre-Departure Check of the airplane was carried out by a ground engineer from a contracted service organization in accordance with Operator’s requirements. The ground engineer was responsible for conducting PRE-DEPARTURE CHECK and ETOPS CHECK. The above procedures did not include cockpit check. The ground engineer did not find any failures or irregularities and did not notice anything unusual. The flight crew arrived at Newark Liberty Airport at a time specified by Operator and in accordance with its operating procedures. When commencing the flight duty period the crew members were rested, refreshed, in a good psychophysical condition. They did not report overload by air operations. Upon arrival at the aircraft stand each flight crew member performed his duties as provided for in the operating procedures of the airline. CPT conducted Exterior Walk Around while FO conducted cockpit check. FO checked on-board equipment and the cockpit preparation for the flight. According to the flight crew statement no failures or irregularities were found. The crew deemed the airplane fully operational for the flight to Warsaw. The ground engineer from the contracted maintenance organization was not present in the cockpit during the flight crew preparation. During the flight CPT was PF and FO was PM. At 03:58:11 hrs the crew started the engines. The take-off took place at 04:19:08 hrs. After the take-off, during the retraction of landing gear and flaps the hydraulic fluid from the center hydraulic system (C system) flew out, which consequently led to pressure drop in this system. The pressure drop in the C system was signaled on the hydraulic panel – SYS PRESS and on EICAS - C HYD SYS PRESS and recorded by on-board flight data recorders. After completion HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PRESSURE (C only) procedure contained in QRH and consultation with the Operator's MCC, the flight crew decided to continue the flight to Warsaw. The flight proceeded without significant distortions. Landing in Warsaw was to be carried out with the alternate landing gear extension system. This situation was well known to pilots due to numerous exercises carried out in a flight simulator. Taking advantage of the available time, the CPT and FO developed a plan for landing in accordance with the procedure contained in QRH and discussed an anticipated sequence of events. At 12:17 hrs, during approach to landing on EPWA aerodrome the flight crew performed the procedure of the lading gear extension using the alternate landing gear extension system. However, after the anticipated time the landing gear was not extended. The crew checked the correctness of execution of the procedure against QRH and again attempted to extend the landing gear. After failure of the second attempt to extend the landing gear with the alternate system the approach to landing was abandoned. At 12:22 hrs the crew reported to ATC inability to extend the landing gear and requested the Operator’s MCC assistance. Around 12:25 hrs the flight crew declared EMERGENCY. The airplane was directed to a holding zone. The Operator’s Operations Centre enabled the crew to communicate with experts. FO executed expert recommendations and checked the alternate landing gear extension switch and circuit breakers on P-11 and P6-1 panels. After that FO reported to Operations Centre and to CPT that the circuit breakers had been checked. FO also cycled (pulled and reset) the ALT EXT MOTOR circuit breaker as indicated by an expert. However, the landing gear was not extended. In the meantime pilots of two F-16s of the Polish Air Force inspected SP-LPC from the air and informed the crew that the landing gear was still in the retracted position but the tail skid was extended. After that information the crew attempted to extend the landing gear in a gravitational way, but it also ended in failure. After a series of unsuccessful attempts to extend the landing gear and due to low fuel quantity, the crew decided to carry out an emergency gear up landing. CC1 was instructed by Captain to prepare the cabin and passengers for emergency landing. During the preparation the passengers were calm, they carried out the crew instructions, there was no panic. Prior to the landing firefighters distributed foam over RWY 33 at a distance of about 3000 m. External services arrived at the airport (PSP and emergency ambulances). The plane touched down on RWY 33 of EPWA aerodrome (Figure 7) at 13:39 hrs. At the time of touchdown about 1600 kg of fuel (1939 liters at a density of 0.825 kg/l) was in its tanks, the engines were running and their recorded speeds were N1ACTL = 57%, N1ACTR = 38%. The plane was moving on RWY 33 along its centre line and stopped 42 m after the intersection with RWY 29. When the aircraft was moving, sparks were coming out of the right engine, and they were suppressed by the applied foam; then the engine caught fire. When the airplane came to rest, the crew evacuated the passengers and LSP extinguished the fire. During the evacuation none of the passengers or crew suffered any injuries. During the landing the aircraft sustained substantial damage, which caused its withdrawal from service.
Probable cause:
Causes of the accident:
1. Failure of the hydraulic hose connecting the hydraulic system on the right leg of the main landing gear with the center hydraulic system, which initiated the occurrence.
2. Open C829 BAT BUS DISTR circuit breaker in the power supply circuit of the alternate landing gear extension system in the situation when the center hydraulic system was inoperative.
3. The crew’s failure to detect the open C829 circuit breaker during approach to landing, after detecting that the landing gear could not be extended with the alternate system.
Factors contributing to the occurrence were as follow:
1. Lack of guards protecting the circuit breakers on P6-1 panel against inadvertent mechanical opening; from 863 production line the guards have been mounted in the manufacturing process (SP-LPC was 659 production line).
2. C829 location on panel P6-1 (extremely low position), impeding observation of its setting and favoring its inadvertent mechanical opening.
3. Lack of effective procedures at the Operator’s Operations Centre, which impeded specialist support for the crew.
4. Operator’s failure to incorporate Service Bulletin 767-32-0162.
Final Report:

Ground collision of an ATR72-202 in Warsaw

Date & Time: Jul 14, 2011 at 2230 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SP-LFH
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Wrocław – Warsaw
MSN:
478
YOM:
1995
Flight number:
ELO3850
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
33
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
On 14 July, 2011 ATR 72 flight crew after landing at EPWA aerodrome received the clearance for taxiing to parking stand 41 via taxiways: "S", "O" and "M". When the airplane was on taxiway "M2", "Mulag" type tractor was moving by the service road, passing perpendicularly to taxiway “M2”. The tractor driver did not give the right of way to ATR 72 and the tractor collided with the airplane. As a result, the airplane and the tractor sustained substantial damages. The flight crew stopped the airplane and shut down the engines. Airport Fire Brigade and an ambulance were called. The tractor operator suffered some injuries and was taken to hospital. the airplane passengers and the flight crew did not suffer any injuries. The impact caused a fuel leakage from the airplane of 200 m2 in area, which was removed along with other elements of the damaged aircraft by the Airport Fire Brigade. The airplane and the "Mulag" tractor were withdrawn from the further service. During the accident there were adverse weather conditions at the airport - heavy rain and lightning which caused reduction in visibility.
Probable cause:
Inadequate observation of the Ground Movement Area by the “Mulag” tractor operator.
Contributing factors:
1. Heavy rain and lightning.
2. Light reflections on the aerodrome surface which hindered observation from the tractor cab.
3. Construction of the "Mulag” tractor cab, left side of which could partially or completely obscure silhouette of the airplane.
4. Short distance between a service road and taxiway "O2".
Final Report:

Crash of a Piper PA-46-350P Malibu Mirage in Gubin: 2 killed

Date & Time: Nov 2, 2010 at 1107 LT
Operator:
Registration:
D-EXTA
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karlsruhe – Cottbus
MSN:
46-36168
YOM:
1998
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
1315
Captain / Total hours on type:
645.00
Aircraft flight hours:
1720
Circumstances:
At the day of the accident, the pilot, accompanied by his wife, planned to fly from Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport to the Cottbus-Drewitz Special Airfield under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) with a Piper PA 46-350P. Prior to the flight he refueled 400 liters and submitted a flight plan. According to the radar recording of the responsible air traffic control center, the airplane started at 0923 hrs1 and flew the planned route at Flight Level (FL) 190 to Cottbus-Drewitz, following the flight plan. The airplane started to descend at approx. 1044 hrs. The Initial Approach Fix (IAF) Cottbus-Drewitz NDB (DRW) was overflown in an altitude of approx. 3,900 ft AMSL with a Ground Speed (GS) of approx. 170 kt, at approx. 1104 hrs, and the descent was continued for the approach NDB-RWY-25. After flying over the intermediate approach fix in approx. 2,800 ft AMSL with a GS of approx. 190 kt, the airplane flew a turn to the left in order to intercept the final approach. The radar recording ended at 1107:34 hrs. At that time the airplane was turning into the final approach in an altitude of 2,400 ft AMSL with a GS of approx. 200 kt. According to radar recordings of the German Federal Armed Forces, the airplane was captured several more times within the turn radius: at 1107:50 hrs in an altitude of 1,200 ft AMSL, at 1108:01 hrs in an altitude of 2,700 ft AMSL, and finally in 1,700 ft AMSL and 1,000 ft AMSL. The recording ended at 1108:21 hrs in an altitude of 600 ft AMSL. The airplane crashed into a field south of the Polish city of Gubin and caught fire. Both occupants lost their lives.
Probable cause:
The accident is caused by a loss of control, when the aircraft changed from visual to instrument flight conditions during landing approach.
The following contributing factors were:
- the loss of visual reference in the turn,
- the change form automatic to manual flight control during a bank attitude,
- the permanently high speed during the landing approach.
Final Report:

Crash of a PZL-Mielec AN-28TD in Gdynia Babie Doly AFB: 4 killed

Date & Time: Mar 31, 2009 at 1645 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
1007
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Gdynia-Babie Doły - Gdynia-Babie Doły
MSN:
AJHP1-01
YOM:
1997
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
4
Aircraft flight hours:
1500
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a training sortie at Gdynia-Babie Doły AFB. On final approach with one engine voluntarily inoperative, the aircraft stalled at low speed. The crew elected to make a go around but the aircraft hit trees at the end of the runway and crashed. All four occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
The pilot in command was under instruction and was joining the circle to perform the final approach with one engine inoperative. He selected full flaps on final, which is against the procedure published in the AFM that requires a maximum flaps of 25°. It was also determined that the pilot in command failed to maintain directional control when power was added to attempt a go-around procedure. On his part, the flight instructor failed to take over the control of the aircraft.

Crash of a Casa C-295M in Mirosławiec: 20 killed

Date & Time: Jan 23, 2008 at 1907 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
019
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Warsaw– Powidz – Poznań-Krzesiny – Mirosławiec – Świdwin – Krakow
MSN:
S-043
YOM:
2007
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
20
Aircraft flight hours:
300
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Warsaw at 1651LT on a flight to Krakow with intermediate stops in Powidz, Poznań-Krzesiny, Mirosławiec and Świdwin, carrying 36 passengers and a crew of four. They were returning to their base after intending the 50th Annual Aviation Safety Conference held in Warsaw. Nine passengers deplaned at Powidz and 11 others at Poznań-Krzesiny AFB. On approach to Mirosławiec by night, the crew encountered poor weather conditions with a ceiling at 300 feet, visibility 2 sm and mist. On short final, the aircraft was unstable. With a rate of descent of 6,000 feet per minute and at a speed of 148 knots, the aircraft impacted trees and crashed in a wooded area located 1,300 metres short of runway threshold, bursting into flames. The aircraft was totally destroyed and all 20 occupants were killed.
Crew:
Maj Jarosław Haładus,
Adj Robert Kuźma,
Adj Michał Smyczyński,
Sgt Janusz Adamczyk.
Passengers:
Gen Brig Andrzej Andrzejewski,
Col Dariusz Maciąg,
Col Jerzy Piłat,
Lt Col Wojciech Maniewski,
Lt Col Zbigniew Książek,
Lt Col Dariusz Pawlak,
Lt Col Zdzisław Cieślik,
Maj Robert Maj,
Maj Mirosław Wilczyński,
Maj Grzegorz Jułga,
Maj Piotr Firlingier,
Maj Krzysztof Smołucha,
Cpt Karol Szmigiel,
Cpt Paweł Zdunek,
Cpt Leszek Ziemski,
Cpt Grzegorz Stepaniuk,

Probable cause:
Inadvertent loss of spatial and situational awareness by the aircraft crew during final stages of PAR approach, which, within 12 seconds period before crash, resulted in the aircraft’s bank increasing unmonitored and accompanying altitude loss, while the flight crew apparently was trying to establish visual contact with runway and approach lights.

Among the secondary causes the Board listed:
- Improper flight crew selection for the flight:
- The PIC did not have any previous experience on this version of CASA C-295 aircraft, which was additionally equipped with 2 IRS/GPS LN-100G units instead of 2 TOPSTAR 100-2 GPS receivers, and, ironically, with EGPWS Mk. V - unfortunately lack of cryptographic modules in GPS receivers, which made IRS/GPS LN-100G system almost useless (IRS alone with no GPS enhancement) caused flight crew to use handheld GPS receivers (Garmin GPSMAP 196),
- The SIC was not rated in CASA C-295 aircraft for night/IMC operations,
- Poor flight crew coordination and cooperation (poor MCC & CRM):
- improper altimeter setting procedures,
- probably both pilots were looking for visual cues and nobody was observing flight instruments in the very last seconds before they crash),
- Poor weather conditions in vicinity of Miroslawiec AB; ceiling 300 feet, visibility 2 sm, in mist. Icing was excluded as a factor.
- Spatial disorientation of the flight crew,
- EGPWS Audio warning was inhibited (the flight crew missed EGPWS test before departure from Warsaw, even though it was a checklist item, and never corrected the problem - the PIC was not familiar with the system - he has never flown before CASA C-295M equipped with EGPWS) - in result no audio warning of excessive bank angle, high terrain closure rate and high sink rate was available to the flight crew, as well as no automatic height above ground callouts were given,
- The flight crew failed to monitor radio-altimeter indication during both approaches,
- Both pilots concentrated their attention outside of the cockpit during final seconds before crash and did not scan flight instruments.
- The military PAR controller did a poor job during the approach, he let for the non-stabilized approach, he was not compensating properly for left crosswind of 20 kts and allowed the aircraft to stay high above glide slope during both PAR approaches, he also was not fully aware of altimeter setting (QNH or QFE) and altitude reports by flight crew– improper values QNH/QFE were used by the flight crew during first approach, additionally PIC has set his altimeter to QFE, while SIC to QNH. During the approach the controller’s instructions were hesitant and inconsistent, probably making the flight crew to believe their approach was going well.
- The military PAR controller was giving improper suggestions to the flight crew - he was questioning them during final stage of approach whether they see approach or runway lights or not, instead of continuous talking them down to the runway threshold,
- Altimeter indications were improperly interpreted by the flight crew,
- Improperly performed search for visual contact by the flight crew during final stage of approach,
- Improper, lacking weather situation analysis performed by the PIC before the flight,
- The flight crew did not properly set DH/MDA (they did the same error on previous two legs before crash).

Contributing factors were:
- The SIC was not rated in CASA C-295 aircraft for night/IMC operations (the SIC total flight time was 800 hours including 100 hours in CASA C-295M),
- The PIC has no previous experience on the accident version of CASA C-295 aircraft, (although he logged 800+ hours in another version of CASA C-295M aircraft used by Polish AF and his total flight time was 2500 hours),
- Because of lack of GPS enhancement to IRS, the flight crew used Garmin GPSMAP 196 handheld GPS receiver,
- The PIC had no previous experience in PAR approaches in IMC, close to minimums, which in Miroslawiec AB were reported to be aprox. ceiling 270 feet and visibility of 3300 feet,
- The military PAR controller had no previous experience in conducting PAR approaches of aircraft other than Sukhoi Su-22,
- The aircraft was improperly vectored to final approach by military APP controller (the same person performing PAR controller duties) which resulted in rushed, non-stabilized first approach, because the aircraft started descent on final approach segment being twice as high as glide slope,
- Lack of instrument approach procedures meeting ICAO standards at Polish military airports, including Miroslawiec AB, published in Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP),
- Use of different units by pilots and controller (the aircraft’s altimeters were scaled in feet and hPa, while the controller was using meters and millimeters of Hg, there was also misunderstanding regarding use of QNH and QFE),
- Even though the aircraft was equipped with ILS receiver, the ILS equipment at Miroslawiec AB was inoperative (it was installed in 2001, but since then has never worked properly, and therefore was not used, despite several repair attempts - now, 2 months after the crash, it is reported to work properly - the crew had available only military PAR (unable to meet ICAO standards), assisted with 2 military NDBs located 4 km and 1 km from the threshold of runway 30),
- The information on minimum weather conditions and available navaids in Miroslawiec AB were improperly disseminated (dispatch personnel had no information the ILS in Miroslawiec AB was inoperative).