Crash of a Canadair CL-600-2B16 Challenger 604 near Shahr-e-Kord: 11 killed

Date & Time: Mar 11, 2018 at 1840 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-TRB
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Sharjah – Istanbul
MSN:
5494
YOM:
2001
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
8
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
11
Captain / Total flying hours:
4880
Captain / Total hours on type:
1600.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1132
Copilot / Total hours on type:
114
Aircraft flight hours:
7935
Aircraft flight cycles:
3807
Circumstances:
A Turkish Challenger 604 corporate jet impacted a mountain near Shahr-e Kurd in Iran, killing all 11 on board. The aircraft departed Sharjah, UAE at 13:11 UTC on a flight to Istanbul, Turkey. The aircraft entered Tehran FIR fifteen minutes later and the Tehran ACC controller cleared the flight to climb to FL360 according to its flight plan. About 14:32, the pilot requested FL380, which was approved. Before reaching that altitude, the left and right airspeeds began to diverge by more than 10 knots. The left (captain's) airspeed indicator showed an increase while the right hand (copilot's) airspeed indicator showed a decrease. A caution aural alert notified the flight crew of the difference. Remarks by the flight crew suggested that an 'EFIS COMP MON' caution message appeared on the EICAS. As the aircraft was climbing, the crew reduced thrust to idle. Approximately 63 seconds later, while approaching FL380, the overspeed aural warning (clacker) began to sound, indicating that the indicated Mach had exceeded M 0.85. Based on the Quick Reference Handbook (QRH) of the aircraft, the pilot flying should validate the IAS based on the aircraft flight manual and define the reliable Air Data Computer (ADC) and select the reliable Air Data source. The pilot did not follow this procedure and directly reduced engine power to decrease the IAS after hearing the clacker. The actual airspeed thus reached a stall condition. The copilot tried to begin reading of the 'EFIS COMP MON' abnormal procedure for three times but due to pilot interruption, she could not complete it. Due to decreasing speed, the stall aural warning began to sound, in addition to stick shaker and stick pusher activating repeatedly. The crew then should have referred to another emergency procedure to recover from the stall condition. While the stick pusher acted to pitch down the aircraft to prevent a stall condition, the captain was mistakenly assumed an overspeed situation due to the previous erroneous overspeed warning and pulled on the control column. The aircraft entered a series of pitch and roll oscillations. The autopilot was disengaged by the crew before stall warning, which ended the oscillations. Engine power began to decrease on both sides until both engines flamed out in a stall condition. From that point on FDR data was lost because the electric bus did not continue to receive power from the engine generators. The CVR recording continued for a further approximately 1 minute and 20 seconds on emergency battery power. Stall warnings, stick shaker and stick pusher activations continued until the end of the recording. The aircraft then impacted mountainous terrain. Unstable weather conditions were present along the flight route over Iran, which included moderate up to severe turbulence and icing conditions up to 45000ft. These conditions could have caused ice crystals to block the left-hand pitot tube. It was also reported that the aircraft was parked at Sharjah Airport for three days in dusty weather condition. Initially the pitot covers had not been applied. The formation of dust inside the pitot tube was considered another possibility.
Probable cause:
The accident was caused by insufficient operational prerequisites for the management of erratic airspeed indication failure by the cockpit crew. The following contributing factors were identified:
- The aircraft designer/manufacturer provided insufficient technical and operational guidance about airspeed malfunctions that previously occurred.
- Lack of effective CRM.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 650 Citation VII in Istanbul

Date & Time: Sep 21, 2017 at 2116 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-KON
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Istanbul - Ercan
MSN:
650-7084
YOM:
1998
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
1
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Atatürk Airport in Istanbul at 2105LT bound for Ercan with a crew of three and one passenger on board. Shortly after takeoff, an unexpected situation forced the crew to return for an emergency landing. After touchdown on runway 35L, the twin engine aircraft went out of control, veered off runway, struck a concrete ditch and came to rest in flames. All four occupants were evacuated safely while the aircraft was destroyed by a post crash fire.

Crash of an Airbus A320-232 in Istanbul

Date & Time: Apr 25, 2015 at 1041 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-JPE
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Milan – Istanbul
MSN:
2941
YOM:
18
Flight number:
TK1878
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
91
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The aircraft left Milan-Malpensa at 0700LT and proceed to the east. After an uneventful flight, the crew started the descent to Istanbul-Atatürk Airport runway 05. At a height of 100 feet above the runway, the aircraft banked right, stalled and hit the runway surface. On impact, the right main gear was damaged and punctured the right wing. In such condition, the captain decided to abandon the landing manoeuvre and attempted a go around. The aircraft climbed to an assigned altitude of 3,800 feet, the crew declared an emergency and confirmed that the right engine was out of service. The crew completed a 20 minutes circuit over the bay of Marmara and started a second approach to runway 35L. On touchdown, the right main gear collapsed, the aircraft fall onto the runway, slid for several yards and eventually rotated to the right, veered off runway and made a 180 turn before coming to rest. All 97 occupants were quickly evacuated safely while the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. According to the operator, the loss of control during the last segment was caused by turbulence from a preceding Boeing 787 landing on the same runway 05.

Crash of an Airbus A330-303 in Kathmandu

Date & Time: Mar 4, 2015 at 0744 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-JOC
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Istanbul – Kathmandu
MSN:
1522
YOM:
29
Flight number:
TK726
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
11
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
224
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
14942
Captain / Total hours on type:
1456.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
7659
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1269
Aircraft flight hours:
4139
Aircraft flight cycles:
732
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Istanbul at 1818LT on March 3 on a scheduled flight to Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA), Kathmandu with 11 crew members and 224 passengers .The aircraft started contacting Kathmandu Control from 00:02 hrs to 00:11hrs while the aircraft was under control of Varanasi and descending to FL 250 but there was no response because Kathmandu Control was not yet in operation. The airport opened at its scheduled time of 00:15hrs. The aircraft established its first contact with Kathmandu Approach at 00:17 hrs and reported holding over Parsa at FL 270. Kathmandu Approach reported visibility 100 meters and airport status as closed. At 00:22 hrs the aircraft requested to proceed to Simara due to moderate turbulence. The Kathmandu Approach instructed the aircraft to descend to FL 210 and proceed to Simara and hold. At 01:05 hrs when Kathmandu Approach provided an updated visibility of 1000 meters and asked the flight crew of their intentions, the flight crew reported ready for RNAV (RNP) APCH for runway 02. The aircraft was given clearance to make an RNP AR APCH. At 01:23 hrs when the aircraft reported Dovan, Kathmandu Approach instructed the flight crew to contact Kathmandu Tower. Kathmandu Tower issued a landing clearance at 01:24 hrs and provided wind information of 100° at 03 knots. At 01:27 hrs the aircraft carried out a missed approach due to lack of visual reference. The aircraft was given clearance to proceed to RATAN hold via MANRI climbing to 10500 feet as per the missed approach procedure. During the missed approach the aircraft was instructed to contact Kathmandu Approach. At 01:43 hrs the aircraft requested the latest visibility to which Kathmandu Approach provided visibility 3000 m and Kathmandu Tower observation of 1000 meters towards the south east and few clouds at 1000 ft, SCT 2000 ft and BKN 10,000 feet. When the flight crew reported their intention to continue approach at 01:44 hrs, Kathmandu Approach cleared the aircraft for RNAV RNP APCH runway 02 and instructed to report RATAN. The aircraft reported crossing 6700 ft at 01:55 hrs to Kathmandu Tower. Kathmandu Tower cleared the aircraft to land and provided wind information of 160° at 04 kts. At 01:57 hrs Kathmandu Tower asked the aircraft if the runway was insight. The aircraft responded that they were not able to see the runway but were continuing the approach. The aircraft was at 880 ft AGL at that time. At 783 ft AGL the aircraft asked Kathmandu Tower if the approach lights were on. Kathmandu Tower informed the aircraft that the approach lights were on at full intensity. The auto-pilots remained coupled to the aircraft until 14 ft AGL, when it was disconnected, a flare was attempted. The maximum vertical acceleration recorded on the flight data recorder was approximately 2.7 G. The aircraft pitch at touchdown was 1.8 degree nose up up which is lower than a normal flare attitude for other landings. From physical evidence recorded on the runway and the GPS latitude and longitude coordinate data the aircraft touched down to the left of the runway centerline with the left hand main gear off the paved runway surface. The aircraft crossed taxiways E and D and came to a stop on the grass area between taxiway D and C with the heading of the aircraft on rest position being 345 degrees (North North West) and the position of the aircraft on rest position was at N 27° 41' 46", E 85° 21'29" At 02:00 hrs Kathmandu Tower asked if the aircraft had landed. The aircraft requested medical and fire assistance reporting its position at the end of the runway. At 02:03 hrs the aircraft requested for bridge and stairs to open the door and vacate passengers instead of evacuation. The fire and rescue team opened the left cabin door and requested the cabin attendant as well as to pilot through Kathmandu Tower to deploy the evacuation slides. At 02:10 hrs evacuation signal was given to disembark the passengers. All passengers were evacuated safely and later, the aircraft was declared as damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The probable cause of this accident is the decision of the flight crew to continue approach and landing below the minima with inadequate visual reference and not to perform a missed approach in accordance to the published approach procedure. Other contributing factors of the accident are probable fixation of the flight crew to land at Kathmandu, and the deterioration of weather conditions that resulted in fog over the airport reducing the visibility below the required minima. The following findings were reported:
- On March 2, 2015 i.e. two days before the accident, the crews of the flight to Kathmandu reported through RNP AR MONITORING FORM that all the NAV. accuracy and deviation parameter were perfectly correct at MINIMUM but the real aircraft position was high (PAPI 4 whites) and left offset,
- The airlines as well as crews were unaware of the fact that wrong threshold coordinates were uploaded on FMGS NAV data base of the aircraft,
- The flight crew was unable to get ATIS information on the published frequency because ATIS was not operating. ATIS status was also not included in the Daily Facilities Status check list reporting form of TIA Kathmandu,
- Turkish Airlines Safety Department advised to change the scheduled arrival time at Kathmandu Airport,
- It was the first flight of the Captain to Kathmandu airport and third flight but first RNAV (RNP) approach of the Copilot,
- Both approaches were flown with the auto-pilots coupled,
- Crew comments on the CVR during approach could be an indication that they (crews) were tempted to continue to descend below the decision height despite lack of adequate visual reference condition contrary to State published Standard Instrument Arrival and company Standard Operating procedures with the expectation of getting visual contact with the ground,
- The flight crew were not visual with the runway or approach light at MDA,
- The MET Office did not disseminate SPECI representing deterioration in visibility according to Annex 3,
- The Approach Control and the Kathmandu Tower did not update the aircraft with its observation representing a sudden deterioration in visibility condition due to moving fog,
- The Air Traffic Control Officers are not provided with refresher training at regular interval,
- CAAN did not take into account for the AIRAC cycle 04-2015 from 05 Feb 2015 to 04 March 2015 while cancelling AIP supplement,
- The auto-pilots remained coupled to the aircraft until 14ft AGL when it was disconnected and a flare was attempted,
- The crews were not fully following the standard procedure of KTM RNAV (RNP) Approach and company Standard Operating procedures.
Final Report:

Crash of a McDonnell Douglas MD-83 in Istanbul

Date & Time: Oct 11, 2007 at 1929 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
SU-BOY
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Hurghada-Varsovie
MSN:
53191/2151
YOM:
1996
Flight number:
AMV4270
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
156
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
While overflying Turkey, crew informed ATC about electrical problem on board and elected to divert to Istanbul-Atatürk airport for an emergency landing. On arrival, the aircraft did not decelerate as expected and overrun the runway. It lost its undercarriage and came to rest on its belly. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of an Avro RJ100 in Diyarbakir: 75 killed

Date & Time: Jan 8, 2003 at 2019 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-THG
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Istanbul – Diyarbakir
MSN:
E3241
YOM:
1994
Flight number:
TK634
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
75
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
75
Captain / Total flying hours:
6309
Captain / Total hours on type:
473.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2052
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1802
Aircraft flight hours:
19289
Aircraft flight cycles:
16659
Circumstances:
On final approach to Diyarbakir Airport by night, the crew encountered marginal weather conditions with local patches of fog and limited visibility. On short final, in a slight nose down attitude, the aircraft struck the ground and crashed 900 metres short of runway 34, bursting into flames. Five passengers were seriously injured while 75 other occupants were killed. At the time of the accident, the crew was completing a VOR/DME approach to runway 34 that was not equipped with an ILS.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the crew established a visual contact with the runway lights when, on short final, due to the presence of local patches of fog, the pilot-in-command lost visual contact with the ground for few seconds. This caused the aircraft to descend below the MDA until it impacted the ground 900 metres short of runway threshold. Poor weather conditions were considered as a contributing factor.
Final Report:

Crash of a Beechcraft 350 Super King Air in Istanbul: 2 killed

Date & Time: Dec 5, 1998 at 1210 LT
Operator:
Registration:
TC-DHA
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Istanbul - Antalya
MSN:
FL-37
YOM:
1991
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
After takeoff from Istanbul-Atatürk Airport, on a positioning flight to Antalya, the crew reported technical problems and was cleared to return for an emergency landing. After touchdown, the twin engine aircraft went out of control, veered off runway and eventually collided with containers stored by the apron, bursting into flames. Both pilots were killed.

Ground fire of an Ilyushin II-62M in Istanbul

Date & Time: Apr 24, 1998 at 0015 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
YR-IRD
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Istanbul - Almaty
MSN:
47 27 5 4 6
YOM:
1977
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
64
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
At Istanbul-Atatürk Airport, while preparing for takeoff, one of the engine caught fire and exploded. All 73 occupants (64 passengers and nine crew members) evacuated the aircraft and were uninjured. A fire erupted, destroying the rear part of the airplane.
Probable cause:
Engine fire and explosion.