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Crash of a Boeing 777-2H6ER into the Indian Ocean: 239 killed

Date & Time: Mar 8, 2014 at 0130 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9M-MRO
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Kuala Lumpur – Beijing
MSN:
28420/404
YOM:
2002
Flight number:
MAS370
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
12
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
227
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
239
Captain / Total flying hours:
18423
Captain / Total hours on type:
8559.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2813
Copilot / Total hours on type:
39
Aircraft flight hours:
53471
Aircraft flight cycles:
7526
Circumstances:
The Boeing 777-2H6ER took off from Kuala Lumpur Airport runway 32R at 0041LT bound for Beijing. Some 40 minutes later, while reaching FL350 over the Gulf of Thailand, radar contact was lost. At this time, the position of the aircraft was estimated 90 NM northeast of Kota Bharu, some 2 km from the IGARI waypoint. More than 4 days after the 'accident', no trace of the aircraft has been found. On the fifth day of operation, several countries were involved in the SAR operations, in the Gulf of Thailand, west of China Sea and on the Malacca Strait as well. All operations are performed in coordination with China, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Philippines.
No distress call or any kind of message was sent by the crew. The last ACARS message was received at 0107LT and did not contain any error, failure or technical problems. At 0119LT was recorded the last radio transmission with the crew saying "All right, good night". At 0121LT, the transponder was switched off and the last radar contact was recorded at 0130LT.
Several hypothesis are open and no trace of the aircraft nor the occupant have been found up to March 18, 2014.
It is now understood the aircraft may flew several hours after it disappeared from radar screens, flying on an opposite direction from the prescribed flight plan, most probably to the south over the Indian Ocean.
No such situation was ever noted by the B3A, so it is now capital to find both CVR & DFDR to explain the exact circumstances of this tragic event.
Considering the actual situation, all scenarios are possible and all hypothesis are still open.

On Mar 24, 2014, the Malaysian Prime Minister announced that according to new computations by the British AAIB based on new satellite data, there is no reasonable doubt that flight MH370 ended in the South Indian Ocean some 2,600 km west of Perth. Given the situation, the Malaysian Authorities believe that there is no chance to find any survivors among the 239 occupants.

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According to the testimony of 6 Swiss Citizens making a cruise between Perth and Singapore via Jakarta, the following evidences were spotted on March 12 while approaching the Sunda Strait:
1430LT - latitude 6° S, longitude 105° E, speed 17,7 knots:
life jacket, food trays, papers, pieces of polystyrene, wallets,
1500LT:
a huge white piece of 6 meters long to 2,5 meters wide with other debris,
1530LT:
two masts one meter long with small flags on top, red and blue,
2030LT - latitude 5° S, longitude 107° E, speed 20,2 knots.

This testimony was submitted by these 6 Swiss Citizens to the Chinese and Australian Authorities.

On April 21, 2016, it was confirmed that this testimony was recorded by the Swiss Police and transmitted to the Swiss Transportation Safety Investigation Board (STSB), the State authority of the Swiss Confederation which has a mandate to investigate accidents and dangerous incidents involving trains, aircraft, inland navigation ships, and seagoing vessels. The link to the STSB is http://www.sust.admin.ch/en/index.html.

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On July 29, 2015, a flaperon was found on a beach of the French Island of La Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. It was quickly confirmed by the French Authorities (BEA) that the debris was part of the Malaysian B777. Other debris have been found since, in Mozambique and South Africa.

On May 12, 2016, Australia's TSB reported that the part has been identified to be a "the decorative laminate as an interior panel from the main cabin. The location of a piano hinge on the part surface was consistent with a work-table support leg, utilised on the exterior of the MAB Door R1 (forward, right hand) closet panel". The ATSB reported that they were not able to identify any feature on the debris unique to MH-370, however, there is no record that such a laminate is being used by any other Boeing 777 customer.

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On September 15, 2016, the experts from the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB) have completed their examination of the large piece of debris discovered on the island of Pemba, off the coast of Tanzania, on June 20, 2016. Based on thorough examination and analysis, ATSB with the concurrence of the MH370 Safety Investigation Team have identified the following:
- Several part numbers, along with physical appearance, dimensions, and construction confirmed the piece to be an inboard section of a Boeing 777 outboard flap.
- A date stamp associated with one of the part numbers indicated manufacture on January 23, 2002, which was consistent with the May 31, 2002 delivery date for MH370,
- In addition to the Boeing part number, all identification stamps had a second 'OL' number that were unique identifiers relating to part construction,
- The Italian part manufacturer has confirmed that all numbers located on the said part relates to the same serial number outboard flap that was shipped to Boeing as line number 404,
- The manufacturer also confirmed that aircraft line number 404 was delivered to Malaysian Airlines and registered as 9M-MRO (MH370)

As such, the experts have concluded that the debris, an outboard flap originated from the aircraft 9M-MRO, also known as flight MH370. Further examination of the debris will continue, in hopes that further evidence may be uncovered which may provide new insight into the circumstances surrounding flight MH370.
Probable cause:
Due to lack of evidences the exact cause of the accident could not be determined.

Crash of a Grumman E-2C Hawkeye in Indian Ocean: 1 killed

Date & Time: Mar 31, 2010 at 1400 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
165508
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
USS Eisenhower-USS Eisenhower
MSN:
A174
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Circumstances:

The aircraft was engaged in a patrol flight from USS Eisenhower cruising in the Oman Sea. In flight, while returning to the ship, crew encountered technical problem and abandonned the aircraft. Three crew were rescued while the fourth was not found.

Crash of a Boeing 747-244B in the Indian Ocean: 159 killed

Date & Time: Nov 28, 1987 at 0407 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-SAS
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Taipei – Port Louis – Johannesburg
MSN:
22171
YOM:
1980
Flight number:
SA295
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
19
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
140
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
159
Captain / Total flying hours:
13843
Captain / Total hours on type:
3884.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
7362
Copilot / Total hours on type:
4096
Aircraft flight hours:
26743
Aircraft flight cycles:
4877
Circumstances:
On November 27th 1987 flight SA295 was scheduled to depart from Taipei's Chiang Kai Shek Airport at 13:00 UTC for Mauritius' Plaisance Airport and Johannesburg, South Africa on a scheduled international air transport service. Due to adverse weather and the late arrival of a connecting flight the departure time was delayed and the airplane took off at 14:23 UTC with 149000 kg of fuel, 43225 kg of baggage and cargo, 140 passengers and a crew comprising 5 flight crew members and 14 cabin crew members. The calculated flight time was 10 hours 14 minutes. The take-off was normal. At 14:56 UTC the crew communicated with Hong Kong Radar and thereafter routine position reports were given to the flight information centres (FICs) at Hong Kong, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Colombo, Cocos Islands and Mauritius. At 15:55 a routine report was made to the Operator's base at Johannesburg. The information given was that the airplane had taken off from Taipei at 14:23, was flying at FL310 and that the arrival time at Mauritius was estimated as 00:35 UTC. At about 22:30 the pilot called Mauritius FIC, using HF radio, and advised that the aircraft had been at position 070° East at 22:29 at FL350 and that the time at position 065° East was estimated as 23:12. At 23:13 the position report of 065° East at FL350 was given to Mauritius FIC. The estimated time of arrival (ETA) over position 060° East was given as 23:58. About 23:45 the master fire warning alarm sounded on the flight deck. Somebody, probably the pilot, inquired where the warning had come from and received the reply that it had come from the main deck cargo. The pilot then asked that the check list be read. Some 30 seconds later somebody on the flight deck uttered an oath. The pilot called Mauritius Approach Control at 23:49 and said that they had a smoke problem and were doing an emergency descent to FL140. The approach controller gave clearance for the descent and the pilot asked that the fire services be alerted. The controller asked if full emergency services were required to which the pilot replied in the affirmative. At 23:51 the approach controller asked the pilot for his actual position. The pilot replied: "Now we have lost a lot of electrics, we haven't got anything on the aircraft now". At 23:52 the approach controller asked for an ETA at Plaisance and was given the time of 00:30. At 23:52:50 the pilot made an inadvertent transmission when he said to the senior flight engineer: "Hey Joe, shut down the oxygen left". From this time until 00:01:34 there was a period of silence lasting 8 minutes and 44 seconds. From 00:01:34 until 00:02:14 the pilot inadvertently transmitted instructions, apparently to the senior flight engineer, in an excited tone of voice. Most of the phrases are unintelligible. At 00:02:43 the pilot gave a distance report as 65 nautical miles. This was understood by the approach controller to be the distance to the airport. In fact it was the distance to the next waypoint, Xagal. The distance to the airport at that point was approximately 145 nautical miles. At 00:02:50 the approach controller recleared the flight to FL50 and at 00:03:00 gave information on the actual weather conditions at Plaisance Airport, which the pilot acknowledged. When the approach controller asked the pilot at 00:03: 43 which runway he intended to use he replied one three but was corrected when the controller asked him to confirm one four. At 00:03:56 the controller cleared the flight for a direct approach to the Flic-en-Flac (FF) non-directional beacon and requested the pilot to report on approaching FL50. At 00:04:02 the pilot said: "Kay". From 00:08:00 to 00:30:00 the approach controller called the aircraft repeatedly but there was no reply. The aircraft crashed into the Indian Ocean at a position determined to be about 134 nautical miles North-East of Plaisance Airport. The accident occurred at night, in darkness, at about 00:07 UTC. The local time was 04:07. Within a few days drifting pieces of wreckage were found, but it took until January 28th, 1988 for the main wreckage field to be found on the Ocean floor, at a depth of 4400 meters. The cockpit voice recorder was recovered on 6 January 1989.
Probable cause:
Despite intensive investigation the Board was unable to find or conclude that fireworks or any other illegal cargo were carried in the aircraft. The accident followed an uncontrollable fire in the forward right pallet on the main deck cargo compartment. The aircraft crashed into the sea at high speed following a loss of control consequent on the fire.
Fire of an unknown origin had possibly:
1) incapacitated the crew;
2) caused disorientation of the crew due to thick smoke;
3) caused crew distraction;
4) weakened the aircraft structure, causing an in-flight break-up.;
5) burned through several control cables;
6) caused loss of control due to deformation of the aircraft fuselage.
Final Report:

Crash of an Avro 696 Shackleton MR.2 into the Indian Ocean: 8 killed

Date & Time: Nov 4, 1967
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
WL786
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Gan - Singapore
YOM:
1953
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
11
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
8
Circumstances:
While cruising at an altitude of 9,000 feet over the Indian Ocean on a flight from Gan AFB (Maldivian Islands) to Singapore-Changi Airport, the crew informed ATC that the propeller on the engine number four oversped and that he was unable to feather it. Few minutes later, the engine number four caught fire and eventually detached. The captain reduced his altitude in an attempt to make an emergency landing when control was lost. During an uncontrolled descent, the aircraft broke in three and crashed into the sea. The crew of the frigate HMS Ajax arrived on the scene six hours later and its crew was able to evacuate three survivors while eight other occupants were killed.
Those killed were:
F/Lt K. Blake, pilot,
F/O R. K. Bungay, pilot,
F/Lt K. M. Greatorex, navigator,
P/O D. Love, navigator,
F/Lt I. B. Stanley, air electric operator,
F/S R. N. Adams, air electric operator,
F/S R. G. Rees, air electric operator,
Sgt D. H. Morgan, air signaller.
Probable cause:
Due to lack of evidences, the exact cause of the accident could not be determined. However, the assumption that the engine fire was caused by the rupture of a fuel line is not ruled out.

Crash of an Avro 691 Lancastrian I into the Indian Ocean: 10 killed

Date & Time: Mar 23, 1946
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
G-AGLX
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
London – Karachi – Colombo – Cocos Island – Sydney
MSN:
1178
YOM:
1944
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
10
Circumstances:
The aircraft crashed in unknown circumstances into the Indian Ocean while on a leg from Colombo to Cocos Islands. As the aircraft failed to arrive, SAR operations were conducted but eventually suspended 10 days later as no trace of the aircraft nor the crew was ever found. Lost without trace.
Probable cause:
As the aircraft was no recovered, it was not possible to determine the exact cause of the accident.

Crash of a Short S.25 Sunderland III into the Indian Ocean: 10 killed

Date & Time: Nov 28, 1944
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
JM673
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Koggala - Koggala
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
10
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
10
Circumstances:
The seaplane left Koggala AFB at 0645LT on a maritime survey flight off the east coast of Ceylon, with a return scheduled at 2000LT. The radio contact was lost en route and all attempts to contact the crew between 1241LT and 2257LT were unsuccessful. No trace of the aircraft nor the crew was ever found.

Crash of a Short S.23 Empire Flying Boat into the Indian Ocean: 22 killed

Date & Time: Feb 28, 1942
Operator:
Registration:
G-AETZ
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Jakarta – Cilacap – Broome – Darwin – Sydney
MSN:
S.842
YOM:
1937
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
18
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
22
Aircraft flight hours:
7000
Circumstances:
The aircraft was performing a flight from Indonesia (Jakarta and Cilacap) to Sydney on behalf of Qantas Airways, carrying 18 'refugees', women and children, escaping the war. En route, while cruising some 400 km south of Cilacap, the seaplane christened 'Circe' was shot down by the pilot of a Japanese bomber that was performing a maritime patrol flight from Denpasar. Out of control, the Empire Flying Boat crashed into the sea and was lost. All 22 occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
Shot down by a Japanese bomber.