Country
code

Shanghai

Crash of a Cessna 208 Grand Caravan EX off Jinshan: 5 killed

Date & Time: Jul 20, 2016 at 1220 LT
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
B-10FW
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
MSN:
208B-5222
YOM:
2015
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
8
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Circumstances:
While taking off from the bay off Jinshan (south of Shanghai), the single engine aircraft hit a concrete bridge and crashed into the sea. One pilot and four passengers were killed while five other occupants were injured. The seaplane C208 EX version was destroyed. It is believed that the crew misjudged the distance between the departure point and the bridge as the collision occurred just after rotation.

Crash of a McDonnell Douglas MD-11 in Shanghai: 3 killed

Date & Time: Nov 28, 2009 at 0814 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
Z-BAV
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Shanghai - Bishkek
MSN:
48408/457
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
SMJ324
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
3
Circumstances:
At rotation from runway 35L at Shanghai-Pudong Airport, the aircraft did not lift off properly with a negative vario. It eventually stalled and crashed in an open field in the extension of the runway. Three crew were killed while four other were injured. The aircraft was totally destroyed.
Probable cause:
The crew did not properly operate the thrust levers so that the engines did not reach take off thrust. The aircraft had not reached Vr at the end of the runway and could not get airborne. According to the design criteria of the MD11 the crew needs to push at least two thrust levers to beyond 60 degrees, which will trigger autothrust to leave "CLAMP" mode and adjust the thrust to reach the target setting for takeoff, the servo motors would push the thrust levers forward in that case. During the accident departure the pilot in the left seat did not advance the thrust levers to more than 60 degrees, hence the server motors did not work although autothrust was engaged but remained in CLAMP mode and thus did not adjust the thrust to reach takeoff settings. The crew members perceived something was wrong. Audibly the engine sound was weak, visibibly the speed of the aircraft was low, tactically the pressure on the back of the seat was weaker than normal. Somebody within the crew, possibly on the observer seats, suggested the aircraft may be a bit heavy. The T/O THRUST page never appeared (it appears if autothrust is engaged and changes from CLAMP to Thrust Limit setting. Under normal circumstances with autothrust being engaged a click sound will occur as soon as the thrust levers reach the takeoff thrust position. A hand held on the thrust levers will feel the lever moving forward, however, the crew entirely lost situational awareness. None of the anomalies described in this paragraph prompted the crews members' attention. When the aircraft approached the end of the runway several options were available: reject takeoff and close the throttles, continue takeoff and push the throttle to the forward mechanical stop, continue takeoff and immediately rotate. The observer called "rotate", the captain rotated the aircraft. This shows the crew recognized the abnormal situation but did not identify the error (thrust levers not in takeoff position) in a hurry but reacted instinctively only. As the aircraft had not yet reached Vr, the aircraft could not get airborne when rotated. As verified in simulator verification the decision to rotate was the wrong decision. The simulator verification showed, that had the crew pushed the thrust levers into maximum thrust when they recognized the abnormal situation, they would have safely taken the aircraft airborne 670 meters before the end of the runway. The verification also proved, that had the crew rejected takeoff at that point, the aircraft would have stopped before the end of the runway. The crew did not follow standard operating procedures for managing thrust on takeoff. The crew operations manual stipulates that the left seat pilot advances the thrust levers to EPR 1.1 or 70% N1 (depending on engine type), informs the right seat pilot to connect autothrust. The pilot flying subsequently pushes the thrust levers forward and verifies they are moving forward on servos, the pilot monitoring verifies autothrust is working as expected and reaches takeoff thrust settings. In this case the left seat pilot not only did not continue to push the thrust levers forward, but also called out "thrust set" without reason as he did not verify the takeoff thrust setting had been achieved. It is not possible to subdivide the various violations of procedures and regulations. The crew had worked 16 hours during the previous sector. In addition, one crew member needed to travel for 11 hours from Europe to reach the point of departure of the previous sector (Nairobi Kenya), two crew members need to travel for 19 hours from America to the point of departure of the previous sector. These factors caused fatigue to all crew members. The co-pilot was 61 years of age, pathological examination showed he was suffering from hypertension and cardiovascular atherosclerosis. His physical strength and basic health may have affected the tolerance towards fatigue. All crew members underwent changes across multiple time zones in three days. Although being in the period of awakeness in their biological rhythm cycle, the cycle was already in a trough period causing increased fatigue. The captain had flown the Airbus A340 for 300 hours in the last 6 months, which has an entirely different autothrust handling, e.g. the thrust levers do not move with power changes in automatic thrust, which may have caused the captain to ignore the MD-11 thrust levers. The co-pilot in the right hand seat had been MD-11 captain for about 7 years but had not flown the MD-11 for a year. Both were operating their first flight for the occurrence company. The two pilots on the observer seats had both 0 flight hours in the last 6 months. The co-pilot (right hand seat) was pilot flying for the accident sector. The captain thus was responsible for the thrust management and thrust lever movement according to company manual. A surviving observer told the investigation in post accident interviews that the captain was filling out forms and failed to monitor the aircraft and first officer's actions during this critical phase of flight. There are significant design weaknesses in the MD-11 throttle, the self checks for errors as well as degree of automation is not high.
Source: Aviation Herald

Crash of a McDonnell Douglas MD-11F in Shanghai: 8 killed

Date & Time: Apr 15, 1999 at 1604 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
HL7373
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Shanghai - Seoul
MSN:
48409
YOM:
1992
Flight number:
KE6316
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
8
Captain / Total flying hours:
12898
Captain / Total hours on type:
4856.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1826
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1152
Aircraft flight hours:
28347
Aircraft flight cycles:
4463
Circumstances:
On April 15, 1999, Korean Air cargo flight KE6316, a McDonnell Douglas MD-11F, Korean registration HL7373, departed from runway 18 at Shanghai-Hongqiao International Airport, for Seoul, Korea with 2 pilots and 1 flight technician on board at 16:01:35 Beijing local time (08:01:35 UTC time). The autopilot was off 1 minute 7 seconds (at 16:02:42) after takeoff. The airplane maneuvered first to the right, and then kept level flight at approximately 200° track for more than 30 seconds, and maneuvered back to the left. The crew was subsequently cleared to climb to 1,500 meters (4,900 feet) during which the airplane turned to NHW** at 900 meters (3,000 feet). The airplane passed 1,310 meters at 16:04:15, the airplane suddenly executed a very rapid descent after reaching 1,370 meters (4,500 feet) at 16:04:19 and then the airplane disappeared from the airport SSR screen. The airplane crashed into the ground at 16:04:35 according to Shanghai Seismic Bureau's measurement. The distance from the accident site to the airport runway is 11.6 kilometers, the site azimuth is 165° from the center of the runway centerline. The aircraft was totally destroyed and all three crew members were killed as well as five people on the ground. Thirty-six other people were injured, four seriously.
Probable cause:
The joint investigative team determines that the probable cause of the Korean Air flight KE 6316 accident was the flight crew's loss of altitude situational awareness resulting from altitude clearance wrongly relayed by the first officer and the crew's overreaction with abrupt flight control inputs.
Final Report:

Crash of a Harbin Yunsunji Y-12-II in Shanghai: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jun 21, 1996 at 1704 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-3822
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Dalian - Shanghai
MSN:
0001
YOM:
1991
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Dalian, the crew started the descent to Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport in limited visibility due to marginal weather conditions. While completing a last turn to join the approach path, the twin engine aircraft crashed on the top of a hill located about 3 km short of runway. A pilot and a passenger were killed while 10 other occupants were injured.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the crew initiated the last turn prematurely, causing the aircraft to descent below the MDA in limited visibility. At the time of the accident, the aircraft deviated 3 km to the right of the approach path. Lack of visibility was a contributing factor.

Crash of an Antonov AN-24RV in Shanghai: 34 killed

Date & Time: Aug 15, 1989
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-3417
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lanyungang – Shanghai – Nanchang
MSN:
37309006
YOM:
1973
Flight number:
MU5510
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
34
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
34
Circumstances:
After takeoff from runway 36 at Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport, while in initial climb, the right engine failed. The aircraft lost height and crashed in a river located near the runway end. Six passengers were rescued while 34 other occupants were killed.
Probable cause:
Failure of the right engine shortly after rotation for unknown reasons.

Crash of a Douglas DC-8-61 in Shanghai

Date & Time: Sep 17, 1982 at 1430 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
JA8048
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Shanghai - Tokyo
MSN:
46160
YOM:
1971
Flight number:
JL792
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
11
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
113
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The airplane departed Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport at 1357LT on a flight to Tokyo, carrying 113 passengers and a crew of 11. Nine minutes after takeoff, the crew heard a strange noise coming from the lower middle part of the aircraft. This was immediately followed by a hydraulic low level warning, a hydraulic reservoir air low pressure warning, a complete loss of hydraulic system pressure, abnormal flap position indications, and a complete loss of air brake pressure. The crew elected to return to Shanghai for a emergency landing. The DC-8 touched down fast on runway 36, overran and came to rest in a drainage ditch. All 124 occupants were evacuated, 23 of them were injured.
Probable cause:
The explosion of the air brake bottle damaging 13 hydraulic system tubes and 2 emergency air brake system tubes, some of which resulted in the failure of extension of flaps and a loss of normal as well as emergency wheel braking, thus increasing the roll after touchdown distance to a value greater than available runway and stop way length. These factors prevented the captain from stopping the aircraft within the runway and stop way confines.

Crash of an Antonov AN-24 in Shanghai: 40 killed

Date & Time: Jan 21, 1976
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-492
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Guangzhou – Changsha – Hangzhou – Shanghai
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
36
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
40
Circumstances:
While descending to Shanghai-Hongqiao Airport, the airplane crashed in unknown circumstances few km from the airfield. All 40 occupants were killed.

Crash of a Curtiss C-46D-20-CU in Kiangwan AFB: 9 killed

Date & Time: Dec 5, 1948
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
XT-538
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Chengdu – Shanghai
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
37
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
9
Circumstances:
Crashed on final approach to Kiangwan AFB, in Shanghai. Both pilots and seven passengers were killed.

Crash of a Douglas DC-3 in Shanghai: 3 killed

Date & Time: Apr 25, 1947
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-141
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
3
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Shanghai-Longhua Airport, while in initial climb, an engine failed. The aircraft stalled and crashed in an industrial area located near the airport. While both pilots were seriously injured, three people on the ground were killed.
Probable cause:
Engine failure.

Crash of a Curtiss C-46 in Shanghai: 31 killed

Date & Time: Dec 25, 1946 at 2200 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
115
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Chongqing – Shanghai
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
33
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
31
Circumstances:
The descent to Shanghai-Longhua Airport was performed in poor visibility due to thick fog. A CNAC DC-3 already crashed in similar conditions two hours earlier. Apparently in an attempt to establish a visual contact with the ground, the crew reduced his altitude when the aircraft crashed in a prairie located few km short of runway. A crew member and thirty passengers were killed while five other occupants were seriously injured.