Country
code

Penghu County (澎湖縣)

Crash of an ATR72-500 in Magong: 48 killed

Date & Time: Jul 23, 2014 at 1906 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-22810
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Kaohsiung – Makung
MSN:
642
YOM:
14
Flight number:
GE222
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
54
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
48
Captain / Total flying hours:
22994
Captain / Total hours on type:
19069.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2392
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2083
Aircraft flight hours:
27039
Aircraft flight cycles:
40387
Circumstances:
The aircraft was being operated on an instrument flight rules (IFR) regular public transport service from Kaohsiung to Magong in the Penghu archipelago. At 1906 Taipei Local Time, the aircraft impacted terrain approximately 850 meters northeast of the threshold of runway 20 at Magong Airport and then collided with a residential area on the outskirts of Xixi village approximately 200 meters to the southeast of the initial impact zone. At the time of the occurrence, the crew was conducting a very high frequency omni-directional radio range (VOR) non-precision approach to runway 20. The aircraft was destroyed by impact forces and a post-impact fire. Ten passengers survived the occurrence and five residents on the ground sustained minor injuries. The occurrence was the result of controlled flight into terrain, that is, an airworthy aircraft under the control of the flight crew was flown unintentionally into terrain with limited awareness by the crew of the aircraft’s proximity to terrain. The crew continued the approach below the minimum descent altitude (MDA) when they were not visual with the runway environment contrary to standard operating procedures. The investigation report identified a range of contributing and other safety factors relating to the flight crew of the aircraft, TransAsia’s flight operations and safety management processes, the communication of weather information to the flight crew, coordination issues at civil/military joint-use airport, and the regulatory oversight of TransAsia by the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA).
Probable cause:
- The flight crew did not comply with the published runway 20 VOR non-precision instrument approach procedures at Magong Airport with respect to the minimum descent altitude (MDA). The captain, as the pilot flying, intentionally descended the aircraft below the published MDA of 330 feet in the instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) without obtaining the required visual references.
- The aircraft maintained an altitude between 168 and 192 feet before and just after overflying the missed approach point (MAPt). Both pilots spent about 13 seconds attempting to visually locate the runway environment, rather than commencing a missed approach at or prior to the MAPt as required by the published procedures.
- As the aircraft descended below the minimum descent altitude (MDA), it diverted to the left of the inbound instrument approach track and its rate of descent increased as a result of the flying pilot’s control inputs and meteorological conditions. The aircraft’s hazardous flight path was not detected and corrected by the crew in due time to avoid the collision with the terrain, suggesting that the crew lost situational awareness about the aircraft’s position during the latter stages of the approach.
- During the final approach, the heavy rain and associated thunderstorm activity intensified producing a maximum rainfall of 1.8 mm per minute. The runway visual range (RVR) subsequently reduced to approximately 500 meters. The degraded visibility significantly reduced the likelihood that the flight crew could have acquired the visual references to the runway environment during the approach.
- Flight crew coordination, communication, and threat and error management were less than effective. That compromised the safety of the flight. The first officer did not comment about or challenge the fact that the captain had intentionally descended the aircraft below the published minimum descent altitude (MDA). Rather, the first officer collaborated with the captain’s intentional descent below the MDA. In addition, the first officer did not detect the aircraft had deviated from the published inbound instrument approach track or identify that those factors increased the risk of a controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) event.
- None of the flight crew recognized the need for a missed approach until the aircraft reached the point (72 feet, 0.5 nautical mile beyond the missed approach point) where collision with the terrain became unavoidable.
- The aircraft was under the control of the flight crew when it collided with foliage 850 meters northeast of the runway 20 threshold, two seconds after the go around decision had been made. The aircraft sustained significant damage and subsequently collided with buildings in a residential area. Due to the high impact forces and post-impact fire, the crew and most passengers perished.
- According to the flight recorders data, non-compliance with standard operating procedures (SOP's) was a repeated practice during the occurrence flight. The crew’s recurring non-compliance with SOP's constituted an operating culture in which high risk practices were routine and considered normal.
- The non-compliance with standard operating procedures (SOP's) breached the obstacle clearances of the published procedure, bypassed the safety criteria and risk controls considered in the design of the published procedures, and increased the risk of a controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) event.
Final Report:

Crash of an ATR72-202 off Magong: 2 killed

Date & Time: Dec 21, 2002 at 0152 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-22708
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Taipei - Macau
MSN:
322
YOM:
1992
Flight number:
GE791
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Captain / Total flying hours:
14247
Captain / Total hours on type:
10608.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
4578
Copilot / Total hours on type:
4271
Aircraft flight hours:
19254
Aircraft flight cycles:
25529

Crash of a Boeing 737-281 off Magong: 13 killed

Date & Time: Feb 16, 1986 at 1850 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
B-1870
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Kaohsiung - Magong
MSN:
20226
YOM:
1969
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
6
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
13
Circumstances:
On final approach to Magong Airport by night, the crew apparently encountered problems with the nose gear. The captain decided to initiate a go-around procedure. Few minutes later, while climbing, the airplane entered an uncontrolled descent and crashed in the sea. On March 10, the wreckage was found in a depth of 58 meters about 19 km north of the airport. All 13 occupants were killed.

Crash of a Lockheed C-130E Hercules off Magong AFB: 6 killed

Date & Time: Jun 5, 1972
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
62-1805
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Taipei - Taipei
MSN:
3759
YOM:
1963
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
6
Circumstances:
The crew departed Taipei-Songshan on a maritime patrol flight over the China Sea. En route, in unknown circumstances, the airplane went out of control and crashed into the sea off the Magong AFB located in the south part of the Penghu Islands (Pescadores Islands). The aircraft sank and was lost and all six crew members were killed.
Probable cause:
The exact cause of the accident remains unknown but it was reported that the crew apparently encountered technical issues with the undercarriage.

Crash of a Sud-Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III off Penghu Islands: 25 killed

Date & Time: Nov 21, 1971 at 2150 LT
Operator:
Registration:
B-1852
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Taipei - Hong Kong
MSN:
122
YOM:
1962
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
17
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
25
Circumstances:
While cruising by night over the Taiwan Strait en route from Taipei to Hong Kong, the airplane disappeared from the radar screen without any distress call on part of the flying crew. Debris were found in the next early morning, floating on water off the Penghu Islands (Pescadores Islands), Taiwan. None of the 25 occupants survived the crash, among them the Ambassador of Brazil in China. Eye witnesses reported that the airplane disintegrated in the air.
Probable cause:
It was determined that the accident was the consequence of an in-flight disintegration of the airplane after a bomb exploded on board. The author and the reason of this act of terrorism remains unknown.