Region

Crash of an Airbus A320-214 in Karachi: 98 killed

Date & Time: May 22, 2020 at 1439 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BLD
Survivors:
Yes
Site:
Schedule:
Lahore - Karachi
MSN:
2274
YOM:
2004
Flight number:
PK8303
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
91
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
98
Aircraft flight hours:
47124
Aircraft flight cycles:
25866
Circumstances:
On 22 May 2020 at 13:05 hrs PST, the Pakistan International Airlines aircraft Airbus A320-214, registration number AP-BLD, took off from Lahore (Allama Iqbal International Airport – AIIAP) Pakistan to perform a regular commercial passenger flight (PK8303) to Karachi (Jinnah International Airport – JIAP) Pakistan, with 8 crew members (01 Captain, 01 First Officer, and 06 flight attendants) and 91 passengers on board. At 14:35 hrs the aircraft performed an ILS approach for runway 25L and touched down without landing gears, resting on the engines. Both engines scrubbed the runway at high speed. Flight crew initiated a go-around and informed “Karachi Approach” that they intend to make a second approach. About four minutes later, during downwind leg, at an altitude of around 2000 ft, flight crew declared an emergency and stated that both engines had failed. The aircraft started losing altitude. It crashed in a populated area, short of runway 25L by about 1340 meters. An immediate subsequent post impact fire initiated. Out of 99 souls on-board, 97 were fatally injured and 02 passengers survived. On ground 04 persons were injured however 01 out of these reportedly expired later at a hospital.

Below, the preliminary report published by the Pakistan AAIB.
Final Report:

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-2 Beaver in Sadiqabad: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jan 12, 2020
Type of aircraft:
Registration:
AP-AMB
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Rahim Yar Khan - Rahim Yar Khan
MSN:
1415
YOM:
1960
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2
Circumstances:
The airplane departed Rahim Yar Khan-Sheikh Zayed Airport and was spraying pesticide in the area to tackle another wave of locust attacks, which began in December 2019, on the request of the district administration. In unknown circumstances, the single engine airplane went out of control and crashed in a sandy area located in Sadiqabad, killing both crew members, a pilot and a flight engineer. They were completing a mission on behalf of the Department of Agriculture of Pakistan. Initial investigations suggest the plane crashed due to a technical fault.

Crash of a Beechcraft 350i Super King Air in Islamabad: 19 killed

Date & Time: Jul 30, 2019 at 1400 LT
Operator:
Registration:
766
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Chaklala - Chaklala
MSN:
FL-766
YOM:
2011
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
19
Circumstances:
The twin engine airplane departed Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB with five crew members on board for a local training flight. In unknown circumstances, it went out of control and crashed in flames onto several houses located in the suburb of Mora Kalu, about 10 km south of Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB, Islamabad. The aircraft and several houses were destroyed. All five crew members as well as 14 people on the ground were killed.

Crash of a Lockheed C-130E Hercules at Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB

Date & Time: Nov 9, 2018 at 1438 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
4180
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Chaklala - Chaklala
MSN:
4180
YOM:
1966
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The crew was completing a local training flight at Chaklala-Nur Khan AFB in Islamabad. Upon touchdown, a tyre burst and the airplane went out of control. It veered off runway to the right and collided with a concrete wall before coming to rest in flames. All nine occupants escaped uninjured while the aircraft was destroyed by a post crash fire. It is believed that the landing was hard.

Crash of an ATR42-500 near Havelian: 47 killed

Date & Time: Dec 7, 2016 at 1620 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BHO
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Chitral – Islamabad
MSN:
663
YOM:
2007
Flight number:
PK661
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
42
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
47
Captain / Total flying hours:
11265
Captain / Total hours on type:
1216.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
570
Copilot / Total hours on type:
369
Aircraft flight hours:
18739
Circumstances:
On 07 December 2016 morning, after a routine daily inspection at Benazir Bhutto International Airport (BBIAP) Islamabad, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) aircraft ATR42-500 Reg No AP-BHO operated 05 flights (ie Islamabad to Gilgit and back, Islamabad to Chitral, Chitral to Peshawar and back). As 6th and last flight of that day, it took off from Chitral at time 10:38:50 UTC (15:38:50 PST) with 42 passengers (including 01 engineer) and 05 crew members (03 pilots and 02 cabin crew) aboard for Islamabad. It crashed after 42 minutes of flight at 11:20:38 UTC (16:20:38 PST) about 3.5 Nautical Miles (NM) SSE of Havelian, and 24 NM North of BBIAP Islamabad. All 47 souls aboard were fatally injured.
The aircraft remained in air for about 42 minutes before crash (all timings in UTC). These 42 minutes have been split into three stages of flight, described hereunder:
(a) Initial Stage: From 10:38 to 11:04 (~26 minutes) degraded speed governing accuracy of the port propeller was evident in the DFDR data, but was apparently not observed by the cockpit crew. The flight stabilized at an altitude 13,500 feet AMSL and a cruising speed of 186 knots IAS (instead of expected 230 knots IAS). There were two latent pre-existing technical anomalies in the aircraft (a Fractured / dislodged PT-1 blade due to a known quality issue and a fractured pin inside the OSG), and one probable latent pre-existing condition (external contamination) inside the PVM of No 1 Engine. Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) analysis indicates that No 1 Engine was degraded.
(b) Middle Stage (Series of Technical Malfunctions): From 11:04 to 11:13 (~09 minutes), a series of warnings and technical malfunctions occurred to No 1 Engine (left side) and its related propeller control system. These included Propeller Electronic Control (PEC) fault indications, followed by No 1 Engine power loss, and uncontrolled variation of its propeller speed / blade pitch angle abnormal system operation). The propeller speed which was initially at 82% (cruise setting) decreased gradually to 62% and later at the time of engine power loss it increased to 102% (and stayed at that value for about 15 to 18 seconds). It then reduced down to Non Computed Data (NCD) as per DFDR. At this point, (based on simulation results) the blade pitch angle increased (possibly close to feather position). Later, the propeller speed increased to 120% to 125% (probably caused due to unusual technical malfunctions) and stayed around that value for about 40 to 45 seconds. It finally showed an abrupt drop down to NCD again. At this point, (based on simulation results) the blade pitch angle may have settled at a value, different from the expected feathered propeller. During this unusual variation of propeller speed, there were drastic variations in the aircraft aerodynamic behaviour and sounds. The directional control was maintained initially by the Auto-Pilot. A relatively delayed advancement of power (of No 2 Engine) post No 1 Engine power loss, reduction of power (of No 2 Engine) for about 15 seconds during the timeframe when left propeller rpm was in the range of 120% to 125%, and once again a reduction of power towards the end of this part of flight, were incorrect pilot actions, and contributed in the IAS depletion. Auto-Pilot got disengaged. Towards the end of this part of flight, the aircraft was flying close to stall condition. No 1 Engine was already shutdown and No 2 Engine (right side) was operating normal. At this time, IAS was around 120 knots; aircraft started to roll / turn left and descend. Stick shaker and stick pusher activated. Calculated drag on the left side of the aircraft peaked when the recorded propeller speed was in the range of 120% to 125%. During transition of propeller speed to NCD, the additional component of the drag (possibly caused due to abnormal behaviour of left
propeller) suddenly reduced. The advancement of power of No 2 Engine was coupled with excessive right rudder input (to counter the asymmetric condition). This coincided with last abrupt drop in the propeller speed. As a combined effect of resultant aerodynamic forces aircraft entered into a stalled / uncontrolled flight condition, went inverted and lost 5,100 feet AMSL altitude (ie from ~13,450 feet to 8,350 feet AMSL).
(c) Final Stage: The final stage of flight from 11:13 to 11:20 (~07 minutes) started with the aircraft recovering from the uncontrolled flight. Although blade pitch position was not recorded (in the DFDR – by design), and it was not possible to directly calculate that from the available data, a complex series of simulations and assumptions estimated that the blade pitch of left propeller may have settled at an angle around low pitch in flight while rotating at an estimated speed of 5%. Aircraft simulations indicated that stable additional drag forces were present on the left side of the aircraft at this time and during the remaining part of flight. Aircraft had an unexpected (high) drag from the left side (almost constant in this last phase); the aircraft behavior was different from that of a typical single engine In Flight Shutdown (IFSD) situation. In this degraded condition it was not possible for the aircraft to maintain a level flight. However, that level of drag did not preclude the lateral control of the aircraft, if a controlled descent was initiated. The aircraft performance was outside the identified performance envelope. It was exceptionally difficult for the pilots to understand the situation and hence possibly control the aircraft. Figure hereunder shows different stages of flight.
Probable cause:
The following factors were reported:
Probable Primary Factors:
(a) The dislodging / fracture of one PT-1 blade of No 1 Engine triggered a chain of events. Unusual combination of fractured / dislodged PT-1 blade with two latent factors caused off design performance of the aircraft and resulted into the accident.
(b) The dislodging / fracture of PT-1 blade of No 1 Engine occurred after omission from the EMM (Non-Compliance of SB-21878) by PIA Engineering during an unscheduled maintenance performed on the engine in November 2016, in which the PT-1 blades had fulfilled the criteria for replacement, but were not replaced.
(c) Fracture / dislodging of PT-1 blade in No 1 Engine, after accumulating a flying time slightly more than the soft life of 10,000 hrs (ie at about 10004.1 + 93 hrs) due to a known quality issue. This aspect has already been addressed by re-designing of PT-1 blades by P&WC.
Probable Contributory Factors:
(a) A fractured pin (and contamination inside the OSG), contributed to a complex combination of technical malfunctions. The pin fractured because of improper re-assembly during some unauthorized / un-documented maintenance activity. It was not possible to ascertain exact time and place when and where this improper re-assembly may have occurred.
(b) Contamination / debris found in overspeed line of PVM of No 1 Engine probably introduced when the propeller system LRU"s were not installed on the gearbox, contributed to un-feathering of the propeller. It was not possible to ascertain exact time and place when and where this contamination was introduced.
Final Report:

Crash of a Boeing 737-4H6 in Lahore

Date & Time: Nov 3, 2015 at 0927 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJO
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Karachi – Lahore
MSN:
27166/2410
YOM:
1992
Flight number:
SAI142
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
112
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
The approach to runway 36L at Lahore-Allama Iqbal Airport was completed in marginal weather conditions with a horizontal visibility up to 1,500 meters. For unknown reason, the crew landed on the left side of the runway, on a grassy area. The aircraft rolled for several yards and contacted a concrete perpendicular taxiway. The impact caused both main landing gears to be sheared off and the aircraft skidded few dozen meters before coming to rest on its belly 2,500 meters past the runway threshold. All 119 occupants were evacuated, among them 10 were injured. The aircraft is written off.

Crash of an ATR42-500 in Lahore

Date & Time: Aug 31, 2012 at 1510 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BHJ
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Islamabad - Lahore
MSN:
657
YOM:
2006
Flight number:
PIA653
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
42
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful flight from Islamabad, crew started the descent to runway 36R in marginal weather conditions. On touch down on a wet runway, right main gear collapsed. Aircraft slid for 1,700 feet before exiting the runway to the right and coming to rest 60 feet further on. All 46 occupants were unhurt while the aircraft was considered as damaged beyond repair. Five minutes after the accident, the weather briefing was as follow: OPLA 311015Z 16009KT 3000 RA BKN040 OVC100 29/24 Q1003. But ten minutes prior to the crash, the weather briefing was as follow: OPLA 311000Z 33008KT 4000 -RA SCT040 BKN100 32/24 Q1002 TEMPO 31030KT 2000 TSRA FEW030CB. Thus, the conditions were considered as marginal with turbulence, wind to 30 knots and CB's at 3,000 feet. On 11SEP2012, the French BEA reported that the aircraft touched down just at the beginning of the paved surface (undershoot area) to the right of the extended runway 36R centerline, causing the right mains gear to collapse.

Crash of a Boeing 737-236 in Islamabad: 127 killed

Date & Time: Apr 20, 2012 at 1840 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BKC
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Islamabad
MSN:
23167/1074
YOM:
1984
Flight number:
B4-213
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
121
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
127
Circumstances:
On final approach to Islamabad-Benazir Bhutto Airport in poor weather conditions, aircraft hit the ground five kilometers short of runway 30 and disintegrated on impact. On site, near Chaklala AFB, rescuers did not find any survivors among the 127 occupants, 126 Pakistanese and one American. Fortunately, no one on the ground was hurt as several houses were damaged. At the time of the accident, visibility was estimated to 3 km with CB's down to 2,500 feet, rain showers, thunderstorm activity and a wind from 230° at 20 knots. Bhoja Air was performing this flight for the first time (inaugural flight) following a grounding period due to financial problems. Up to date, second worst crash in Pakistan's History. Windshear suspected.

Crash of an Ilyushin II-76TD in Karachi: 12 killed

Date & Time: Nov 28, 2010 at 0148 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
4L-GNI
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Karachi - Khartoum
MSN:
43452546
YOM:
1982
Flight number:
MGC4412
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
8
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
12
Circumstances:
Shortly after take off from Karachi-Jinnah Airport runway 25L, while climbing, aircraft stalled and crashed in a a huge explosion on a building under construction, five kilometers from the airport. All eight occupants were killed as four person in the building, most probably workers who were sleeping at the time of the accident. Aircraft was carrying 31 tons of tents on a supply mission to Khartoum, Sudan.
Probable cause:
It is suspected that an engine failed shortly after take off following a bird strike. This was not confirmed yet by the Pakistan authorities.

Crash of a Beechcraft 1900C in Karachi: 21 killed

Date & Time: Nov 5, 2010 at 0706 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
AP-BJD
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Karachi - Bhit Shah
MSN:
UC-157
YOM:
1991
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
19
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
21
Captain / Total flying hours:
8114
Captain / Total hours on type:
1820.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1746
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1338
Aircraft flight hours:
18545
Aircraft flight cycles:
24990
Circumstances:
Shortly after takeoff from Karachi-Jinnah Airport runway 07R, while in initial climb, the pilot informed ATC about engine problems and elected to return to runway 25R. Shortly later, the aircraft went out of control and crashed in a wasteland located near the Gulistan-e-Jauhar residential area, less than one mile from Airport. The aircraft was destroyed by impact forces and a post impact fire. All 21 occupants were killed, among them several employees of the Italian Oil Company ENI.
Probable cause:
Detailed investigation and analyses of the examinable evidence confirmed that the aircraft had developed some problem with its Engine No.2 (Right) immediately after takeoff which was observed by the cockpit crew as propeller feathering on its own. No concrete evidence could be found which would have led to the engine’s propeller malfunction as observed. The only probable cause of propeller feathering on its own could be the wear & tear of the beta valve leading to beta system malfunction. However, this anomaly at the most could have led to the non availability of one engine and making a safe landing with a single engine since the aircraft was capable of landing with a single engine operation. Some of the actions by the cockpit crew before takeoff and subsequent to the observed anomaly in the Engine No.2 were not according to the QRH / FCOM which aggravated the situation and resulted into the catastrophic accident.
The following factors contributed to the accident:
The aircraft accident took place as a result of combination of various factors which directly and indirectly contributed towards the causation of accident.
The primary cause of accident includes, inappropriate skill level of Captain to handle abnormal operation of engine No 2 just after takeoff, failure of cockpit crew to raise the landing gears after experiencing the engine anomaly, execution of remedial actions by FO before the attainment of minimum safe altitude of 400 ft AGL resulted in non conformance and non compliance of cockpit crew to OEM recommended procedures to handle such situations.
The lack of situational awareness and CRM failure directly contributed towards ineffective management of the flight deck by the cockpit crew.
The contributory factors include inadequate cockpit crew simulator training monitoring mechanism both at operator and CAA Pakistan levels in respect of correlation of previous / current performance and skill level of cockpit crew during the simulator training sessions along with absence of conduct of recurrent / refresher simulator training between two annual simulator checks in accordance with ICAO Annex-6 guidelines and CAA Pakistan (applicable ANOs) requirements for specific type of aircraft in a year.
Final Report: