Crash of a Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain near Peach Springs: 10 killed

Date & Time: Aug 17, 1983 at 1227 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N88LV
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Las Vegas - Grand Canyon
MSN:
31-7752118
YOM:
1977
Flight number:
6G88
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
10
Captain / Total flying hours:
8099
Captain / Total hours on type:
1782.00
Aircraft flight hours:
4325
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Las Vegas, NV as the 2nd of 5 aircraft on a scheduled Grand Canyon sightseeing flight. The 1st portion of the flight was over the Las Vegas strip area and Lake Mead and was uneventful. However, weather conditions precluded the pilot from continuing over the Shivwits plateau. Radio conversations between the pilot and other company aircrews indicated that the pilot of N88LV had encountered deteriorating weather conditions in the canyon and that he had decided to abort the flight and climb out. Later attempts to contact the aircraft were unsuccessful. The wreckage was found on 8/18/83 where the aircraft had collided on the west wall of a mesa inside the canyon. A helicopter pilot flying about 14 miles north of the crash site reported clouds at ground level (4,500 feet msl). The elevation of the accident site was 6,320 feet. Shortly before his last transmission, the pilot stated he was 'just short of Twin Peaks.' The pilot had transmitted his position from Peach VOR, indicating he was in the area of the crash site. Twin Peaks was northeast and had similar terrain. All 10 occupants were killed.
Crew:
Wallace S. Gustafson Jr., pilot.
Passengers:
Enrico Annibali,
Maria Vittoria Annibali,
Giancarlo Annibali,
Luciano Annibali,
Guliana Ranieri-Annibali,
Francesca Annibali,
Federica Annibali,
Stefano Annibali,
Daniele Vernava.
Photos: https://www.lostflights.com/Grand-Canyon-Aviation/81783-Las-Vegas-Airlines-Piper/
Probable cause:
Occurrence #1: in flight encounter with weather
Phase of operation: cruise - normal
Findings
1. (f) weather condition - clouds
2. (f) terrain condition - mountainous/hilly
3. (f) weather condition - low ceiling
4. (f) weather condition - rain
5. (c) VFR flight into IMC - continued - pilot in command
----------
Occurrence #2: in flight collision with terrain/water
Phase of operation: climb
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna T207A Skywagon in Grand Canyon: 1 killed

Date & Time: May 24, 1981 at 1733 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N6324H
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Grand Canyon - Grand Canyon
MSN:
207-0483
YOM:
1978
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
6
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
1
Captain / Total flying hours:
2980
Captain / Total hours on type:
257.00
Circumstances:
While completing an on-demand local touristic flight, the engine failed during normal cruise. The pilot reduced his altitude and attempted an emergency landing when the airplane crash landed in rough terrain. A passenger was killed while six other occupants escaped with minor or no injuries.
Probable cause:
Powerplant failure for undetermined reasons. The following contributing factors were reported:
- High density altitude, approximately 5,400 feet
- Rough/uneven terrain,
- Forced landing off airport on land.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 404 Titan II in Grand Canyon: 8 killed

Date & Time: Jul 21, 1980 at 1702 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N2683S
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Grand Canyon - Phoenix
MSN:
404-0606
YOM:
1979
Flight number:
YR306
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
7
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
8
Captain / Total flying hours:
2474
Captain / Total hours on type:
323.00
Aircraft flight hours:
718
Circumstances:
At 1702, Scenic Airlines flight 306, a Cessna 404, VFR commuter flight to Phoenix, crashed approximately three miles south of runway 21 after takeoff from the Grand Canyon National Park Airport. The aircraft cut a swath through a densely wooded area on a magnetic heading of 165° and came to rest upright about 230 feet from the initial point of impact with trees. Impact forces and an intense fire destroyed the aircraft. The pilot and six of the seven passengers were killed in the accident. One passenger survived the accident but died five days later as a result of thermal injuries.
Probable cause:
The probable cause of the accident was a substantial loss of power from the left engine at a critical point in the takeoff an the failure of the pilot to establish a minimum drag configuration which degraded the marginal single-engine climb performance of the aircraft. The loss of power resulted from the seizure of the turbocharger following a progressive failure of the turbine wheel blades initiated by foreign object ingestion which had occurred previous to this flight and was not detected during maintenance on the engine 4 days before the accident.
Final Report:

Crash of a Cessna 402 near Peach Springs: 10 killed

Date & Time: Oct 16, 1971 at 0945 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N3250Q
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Las Vegas - Grand Canyon
MSN:
402-0050
YOM:
1967
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
10
Captain / Total flying hours:
2441
Captain / Total hours on type:
415.00
Circumstances:
The twin engine airplane departed Las Vegas Airport on a charter flight to Grand Canyon, carrying nine passengers, tourists from the US, France and Germany. En route, the pilot encountered poor weather conditions and elected to turning around when he lost control of the airplane that dove into the ground and crashed about 39 miles north of Peach Springs. The wreckage was found a day later in the Shivwits Plateau near Parashant Canyon. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and all 10 occupants have been killed.
Crew:
Wayne Leeth.
Passengers:
James Allen Jr,
Florence Allen,
Mr. R. Lynch,
Mrs. R. Lynch,
Mr. P. Dosmond, France,
Mrs. P. Dosmond, France,
Paul Haack, West Germany,
Renate Haack, West Germany,
Walter Pilgram, West Germany.
Probable cause:
The pilot continued VFR flight into adverse weather conditions. The following factors were reported:
- Low ceiling, rain and snow.
Final Report:

Crash of a Douglas DC-7 in the Grand Canyon: 58 killed

Date & Time: Jun 30, 1956 at 1032 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
N6324C
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Los Angeles – Chicago – New York
MSN:
44288
YOM:
1955
Flight number:
UA718
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
53
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
58
Captain / Total flying hours:
16492
Captain / Total hours on type:
1238.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
4540
Copilot / Total hours on type:
230
Aircraft flight hours:
5115
Circumstances:
United Air Lines Flight 718 was regularly scheduled from Los Angeles to Chicago, Illinois. On June 30, 1956, it took off from runway 25L (left) of the Los Angeles International Airport at 0904 (three minutes after TWA 2). Flight 718 was on an IFR flight plan to Chicago via Green Airway 5 Palm Springs inter-section, direct Needles, direct Painted Desert, direct Durango, direct Pueblo, direct St. Joseph. Victor Airway 116 Joliet, Victor Airway 84 Chicago Midway Airport. The flight plan proposed a .JPG"> airspeed of 288 knots., a cruising altitude of 21,000 feet, and a departure time of 0845. The flight crew consisted of Captain Robert F. Shirley, First Officer Robert W. Harms, Flight Engineer Gerard Flore, and Stewardesses Nancy L. Kemnitz and Margaret A. Shoudt. Flight preparations and dispatch of United 718 were routine and the aircraft departed with 3,850 gallons of fuel. The company load manifest showed the gross weight of the aircraft at takeoff to be 105,835 pounds, which was less than the maximum allowable of 114,060 pounds; the latter weight was restricted from a maximum of 122,200 pounds for the aircraft because of a landing limitation at Chicago. The load was properly distributed with respect to the center of gravity limitations of the aircraft. After takeoff the flight contacted the Los Angeles tower radar controller, who vectored it through the overcast over the same departure course as TWA 2. United 718 reported "on top" and changed to Los Angeles Center frequency for its en route clearance. This corresponded to the flight plan as filed; however, the controller specified that the climb to assigned altitude be in VER conditions. Flight 718 made position reports to Aeronautical Radio, Inc., which serves under contract as United company radio. It reported passing over Riverside and later over Palm Springs intersection. The latter report indicated that United 718 was still climbing to 21,000 and estimated it would reach Needles at 1000 and the Painted Desert at 1034. At approximately 0958 United 718 made a position report to the CAA communications station located at Needles. This report stated that the flight was over Needles at 0958, at 21,000 feet, and estimated the Painted Desert at 1031, with Durango next. At 1031 an unidentified radio transmission was heard by Aeronautical Radio communicators at Salt Lake City and San Francisco. They were not able to understand the message when it was received but it was later determined by playing back the recorded transmission that the message was from United 718. Context was interpreted as: "Salt Lake, United 718 . . . ah . . . we're going in."
Probable cause:
The Board determines that the probable cause of this mid-air collision was that the pilots did not see each other in time to avoid the collision. It is not possible to determine why the pilots did not see each other, but the evidence suggests that it resulted from any one or a combination of the following factors: Intervening clouds reducing time for visual separation, visual limitations due to cockpit visibility, and preoccupation with normal cockpit duties, preoccupation with matters unrelated to cockpit duties such as attempting to provide the passengers with a more scenic view of the Grand Canyon area, physiological limits to human vision reducing the time opportunity to see and avoid the other aircraft, or insufficiency of en route air traffic advisory information due to inadequacy of facilities and lack of personnel in air traffic control. The following findings were reported:
- Approaching Daggett, TWA 2 requested its company radio to obtain 21,000 feet as an assigned altitude, or 1,000 on top,
- Company radio requested 21,000 feet IFR from ARTC. This vas denied by ARTC. Request was then made for 1,000 on top. This was approved and clearance issued. The flight climbed to and proceeded at 21,000 feet,
- As an explanation for the denial of 21,000 feet, TWA 2 was furnished pertinent information on UA718,
- The last position report by each flight indicated it was at that time at 21,000, estimating the Painted Desert line of position at 1031,
- The Salt Lake controller possessed both position reports at approximately 1013, at which time both flights were in uncontrolled airspace,
- Traffic control services are not provided in the uncontrolled airspace and according to existing Air Traffic Control policies and procedures the Salt Lake controller was not required to issue traffic information; none was issued voluntarily,
- A general overcast with some breaks existed at 15,000 feet in the Grand Canyon area,
- Several cumulus buildups extending above flight level existed; one was nearly over Grand Canyon Village and others were north and northeast in the area of the collision,
- The collision occurred at approximately 1031 in visual flight rule weather conditions at about 21,000 feet,
- The collision in space was above a position a short distance west of the TWA wreckage area, 17 miles west of or approximately 3-1/2 minutes' flying time from the Painted Desert line of position,
- Under visual flight rule weather conditions it is the pilot's responsibility to maintain separation from other aircraft,
- At impact the aircraft relative to each other converged at an angle of about 25 degrees with the DC-7 to the right of the L-1049. The DC-7 was rolled about 20 degrees right wing down and pitched about 10 degrees nose down relative to the L-1049,
- There was no evidence found to indicate that malfunction or failure of the aircraft or their components was a factor in the accident.
Final Report:

Crash of a Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation in the Grand Canyon: 70 killed

Date & Time: Jun 30, 1956 at 1031 LT
Operator:
Registration:
N6902C
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Los Angeles – Kansas City – Washington DC
MSN:
4016
YOM:
1952
Flight number:
TW002
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
64
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
70
Captain / Total flying hours:
14922
Captain / Total hours on type:
7208.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
6976
Copilot / Total hours on type:
825
Aircraft flight hours:
10519
Circumstances:
On June 30, 1956, at 0901, Trans World Airlines Flight 2, a regularly scheduled passenger service, took off from runway 25 of the Los Angeles Inter-national Airport. Flight 2 was on an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight plan from Los Angeles, California, to Kansas City, Missouri, via Green Airway 5, Amber Airway 2, Daggett direct Trinidad, direct Dodge City, Victor Airway 10 Kansas City. The flight plan also proposed a cruising altitude of 19,000 feet, a .JPG"> airspeed of 270 knots, and a departure time of 0830. The Trans World flight crew consisted of Captain Jack S. Gandy, Copilot James H. Ritner, Flight Engineer Forrest D. Breyfogle, night Engineer Harry H. Allen (aboard as an additional crew member), and Hostesses Tracine E. Armbruster and Beth E. Davis. Preparations for Flight 2 were routine except that departure was delayed a few minutes by minor maintenance on the aircraft. The flight was dispatched with 3,300 gallons of fuel and the load manifest showed the gross weight of the aircraft at takeoff was 108,115 pounds, well, under the maximum allowable of 113,200 pounds. The load was properly distributed with respect to center of gravity limitations of the aircraft. As requested. the flight, after takeoff, contacted the Los Angeles tower radar departure controller, and was vectored through an overcast which existed in the Los Angeles area. After reporting "on top" (2,400 feet) the flight switched to Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center (referred to as Los Angeles Center) frequency, 118.9 mcs., for its en route clearance. This clearance specified the routing as filed in the flight plan, however, the controller specified that the flight climb to 19,000 feet in VFR conditions. Immediately thereafter TWA 2 asked for a routing change to Daggett via Victor Airway 210. This was approved in a routine manner. At 0921, through company radio communications, Flight 2 reported that it was approaching Daggett and requested a change in flight plan altitude assignment from 19,000 to 21,000 feet. ARTC (Los Angeles Center) advised they were unable to approve the requested altitude because of traffic (United Air Lines Flight 718). Flight 2 requested a clearance of 1,000 feet on top. Ascertaining from the radio operator that the flight was then at least 1,000 on top, ARTC cleared the flight. At 0959 Trans World 2 reported its position through company radio at Las Vegas. It reported that it had passed Lake Mohave at 0955, was 1,000 on top at 21,000 feet, and estimated it would reach the 321-degree radial of the Winslow omni range station (Painted Desert) at 1031 with Farmington next. This was the last radio communication with the flight.
Probable cause:
The Board determines that the probable cause of this mid-air collision was that the pilots did not see each other in time to avoid the collision. It is not possible to determine why the pilots did not see each other, but the evidence suggests that it resulted from any one or a combination of the following factors: Intervening clouds reducing time for visual separation, visual limitations due to cockpit visibility, and preoccupation with normal cockpit duties, preoccupation with matters unrelated to cockpit duties such as attempting to provide the passengers with a more scenic view of the Grand Canyon area, physiological limits to human vision reducing the time opportunity to see and avoid the other aircraft, or insufficiency of en route air traffic advisory information due to inadequacy of facilities and lack of personnel in air traffic control. The following findings were reported:
- Approaching Daggett, TWA 2 requested its company radio to obtain 21,000 feet as an assigned altitude, or 1,000 on top,
- Company radio requested 21,000 feet IFR from ARTC. This vas denied by ARTC. Request was then made for 1,000 on top. This was approved and clearance issued. The flight climbed to and proceeded at 21,000 feet,
- As an explanation for the denial of 21,000 feet, TWA 2 was furnished pertinent information on UA718,
- The last position report by each flight indicated it was at that time at 21,000, estimating the Painted Desert line of position at 1031,
- The Salt Lake controller possessed both position reports at approximately 1013, at which time both flights were in uncontrolled airspace,
- Traffic control services are not provided in the uncontrolled airspace and according to existing Air Traffic Control policies and procedures the Salt Lake controller was not required to issue traffic information; none was issued voluntarily,
- A general overcast with some breaks existed at 15,000 feet in the Grand Canyon area,
- Several cumulus buildups extending above flight level existed; one was nearly over Grand Canyon Village and others were north and northeast in the area of the collision,
- The collision occurred at approximately 1031 in visual flight rule weather conditions at about 21,000 feet,
- The collision in space was above a position a short distance west of the TWA wreckage area, 17 miles west of or approximately 3-1/2 minutes' flying time from the Painted Desert line of position,
- Under visual flight rule weather conditions it is the pilot's responsibility to maintain separation from other aircraft,
- At impact the aircraft relative to each other converged at an angle of about 25 degrees with the DC-7 to the right of the L-1049. The DC-7 was rolled about 20 degrees right wing down and pitched about 10 degrees nose down relative to the L-1049,
- There was no evidence found to indicate that malfunction or failure of the aircraft or their components was a factor in the accident.
Final Report: