Country
code

Bagmati

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-8-Q402 Dash-8 in Kathmandu: 51 killed

Date & Time: Mar 12, 2018 at 1419 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
S2-AGU
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Dhaka - Kathmandu
MSN:
4041
YOM:
2001
Flight number:
BS211
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
67
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
51
Captain / Total flying hours:
5518
Captain / Total hours on type:
2824.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
390
Copilot / Total hours on type:
240
Aircraft flight hours:
21419
Aircraft flight cycles:
28649
Circumstances:
On March 12, 2018, a US Bangla Airlines, Bombardier DHC-8-402, S2-AGU, flight number BS211 departed Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport, Dhaka, Bangladesh at 06:51 UTC on a schedule flight to Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA), Kathmandu, Nepal. The aircraft overflew part of Bangladesh and Indian airspace en-route to Nepal. At 0641, Dhaka Ground Control contacted the aircraft requesting for its Bangladesh ADC number which was recently made mandatory a few weeks ago by Bangladesh authority for all international outbound flights. The crew provided the ADC number as 2177 as provided in the Flight Plan. The Ground Controller again asked the crew if they had the ADC for Bangladesh. At 0642, PIC then contacted the Operations to confirm the Bangladesh ADC number. As per the CVR records, changes in the PIC’s vocal pitch and language used indicated that he was agitated and experiencing high levels of stress at the time while communicating with Dhaka Ground Control and airlines operations. The aircraft finally took off at 0651. As the aircraft was in a climb phase, the PIC overheard a communication between Operations and another US Bangla aircraft regarding the fuel onboard but the PIC without verifying whether the message was meant for him or not, engaged in some unnecessary conversation with the Operations staff. The Captain's vocal pitch and language used indicated that he was very much emotionally disturbed and experiencing high level of stress. The aircraft established its first contact with Kathmandu Control at 0752:04. At 0807:49 the First Officer contacted Kathmandu Control and requested for descent. Kathmandu Control gave descend clearance to FL160 with an estimated approach time of 0826 which was acknowledged by the First Officer. At 0810 the flight was handed over to Kathmandu Approach. At 0811, Kathmandu Approach instructed the aircraft to descend to 13,500 ft and hold over GURAS. The crew inserted the HOLD in the Flight Management System. At 0813:41 Kathmandu Approach further instructed the aircraft to reduce its speed and descend to 12500 ft. At 0816 Kathmandu Approach instructed the aircraft to further descend to 11500 ft., and cleared for VOR approach RWY 02 maintaining minimum approach speed. Both the crew forgot to cancel the hold on the FMS as they were engaged in some unnecessary conversation. Upon reaching GURAS, the aircraft turned left to enter the holding pattern over GURAS, it was noticed by PIC and FO and immediately PIC made correction and simultaneously this was alerted to the crew by Approach Control also. Once realizing the aircraft flying pattern and ATC clearance, the PIC immediately selected a heading of 027° which was just 5° of interception angle to intercept the desired radial of 202° inbound to KTM. The spot wind recorded was westerly at 28kt. The aircraft continued approach on heading mode and crossed radial 202° at 7 DME of KTM VOR. The aircraft then continued on the same heading of 027° and deviated to the right of the final approach course. Having deviated to the right of the final approach path, the aircraft reached about 2-3 NM North east of the KTM VOR and continued to fly further northeast. At 0827, Kathmandu Tower (TWR) alerted the crew that the landing clearance was given for RWY 02 but the aircraft was proceeding towards RWY 20. At 0829, Tower Controller asked the crew of their intention to which the PIC replied that they would be landing on RWY 02. The aircraft then made an orbit to the right. The Controller instructed the aircraft to join downwind for RWY 02 and report when sighting another Buddha Air aircraft which was already on final for RWY 02. The aircraft instead of joining downwind leg for RWY 02, continued on the orbit to the right on a westerly heading towards Northwest of RW 20. The controller instructed the aircraft to remain clear of RWY 20 and continue to hold at present position as Buddha air aircraft was landing at RW 02 (from opposite side) at that time. After the landing of Buddha Air aircraft, Tower Controller, at 08:32 UTC gave choice to BS211 to land either at RW 20 or 02 but the aircraft again made an orbit to the right, this time northwest of RWY 20. While continuing with the turn through Southeastern direction, the PIC reported that he had the runway in sight and requested tower for clearance to land. The Tower Controller cleared the aircraft to land but when the aircraft was still turning for the RWY it approached very close to the threshold for RWY 20 on a westerly heading and not aligned with the runway. At 08:33:27 UTC, spotting the aircraft maneuvering at very close proximity of the ground and not aligned with the RWY. Alarmed by the situation, the Tower Controller hurriedly cancelled the landing clearance of the aircraft by saying, "Takeoff clearance cancelled". Within the next 15-20 seconds, the aircraft pulled up in westerly direction and with very high bank angle turned left and flew over the western area of the domestic apron, continued on a southeasterly heading past the ATC Tower and further continued at a very low height, flew over the domestic southern apron area and finally attempted to align with the runway 20 to land. During this process, while the aircraft was turning inwards and momentarily headed towards the control tower, the tower controllers ducked down out of fear that the aircraft might hit the tower building. Missing the control tower, when the aircraft further turned towards the taxi track aiming for the runway through a right reversal turn, the tower controller made a transmission by saying, "BS 211, I say again...". At 08:34 UTC the aircraft touched down 1700 meters down the threshold with a bank angle of about 15 degrees and an angle of about 25 degrees with the runway axis (approximately heading Southeast) and to the left of the center line of runway 20, then veered southeast out of the runway through the inner perimeter fence along the rough down slope and finally stopped about 442 meters southeast from the first touchdown point on the runway. All four crew members (2 cockpit crew and 2 cabin crew) and 45 out of the 67 passengers onboard the aircraft were killed in the accident. Two more passengers succumbed to injury later in hospital during course of treatment. The aircraft caught fire after 6 seconds of touchdown which engulfed major portions of the aircraft.
Probable cause:
The Accident Investigation Commission determines that the probable cause of the accident is due to disorientation and a complete loss of situational awareness in the part of crewmember. Contributing to this the aircraft was offset to the proper approach path that led to maneuvers in a very dangerous and unsafe attitude to align with the runway. Landing was completed in a sheer desperation after sighting the runway, at very close proximity and very low altitude. There was no attempt made to carry out a go around, when a go around seemed possible until the last instant before touchdown on the runway.
The following contributing factors were reported:
- Improper timing of the pre-flight briefing and the commencement of the flight departure in which the operational pre-flight briefing was given in early morning but the flight departure time was around noon and there were four domestic short flights scheduled in between.
- The PIC, who was the pilot flying, seemed to be under stress due to behavior of a particular female colleague in the company and lack of sleep the preceding night.
- A very steep gradient between the crew.
- Flight crew not having practiced visual approach for runway 20 in the simulator.
- A poor CRM between the crew.

An investigation into the captain's behaviour showed that he had history of depression while serving in the Bangladesh Air Force in 1993 and was removed from active duty after evaluation by a psychiatrist. He was re-evaluated by a psychiatrist in January 2002 and was declared to be fit for flying. Examinations in successive annual medical checks were not focused on his previous medical condition of depression, possibly because this was not declared in the self-declaration form for annual medicals. During the flight the captain was irritable, tensed, moody, and aggressive at various times. He was smoking during the flight, contrary to company regulations. He also used foul language and abusive words in conversation with the junior female first officer. He was engaged in unnecessary conversation during the approach, at a time when sterile cockpit rules were in force. The captain seemed very unsecure about his future as he had submitted resignation from this company, though only verbally. He said he did not have any job and did not know what he was going to do for living.
Final Report:

Crash of an Airbus A330-303 in Kathmandu

Date & Time: Mar 4, 2015 at 0744 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
TC-JOC
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Istanbul – Kathmandu
MSN:
1522
YOM:
29
Flight number:
TK726
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
11
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
224
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
14942
Captain / Total hours on type:
1456.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
7659
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1269
Aircraft flight hours:
4139
Aircraft flight cycles:
732
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Istanbul at 1818LT on March 3 on a scheduled flight to Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA), Kathmandu with 11 crew members and 224 passengers .The aircraft started contacting Kathmandu Control from 00:02 hrs to 00:11hrs while the aircraft was under control of Varanasi and descending to FL 250 but there was no response because Kathmandu Control was not yet in operation. The airport opened at its scheduled time of 00:15hrs. The aircraft established its first contact with Kathmandu Approach at 00:17 hrs and reported holding over Parsa at FL 270. Kathmandu Approach reported visibility 100 meters and airport status as closed. At 00:22 hrs the aircraft requested to proceed to Simara due to moderate turbulence. The Kathmandu Approach instructed the aircraft to descend to FL 210 and proceed to Simara and hold. At 01:05 hrs when Kathmandu Approach provided an updated visibility of 1000 meters and asked the flight crew of their intentions, the flight crew reported ready for RNAV (RNP) APCH for runway 02. The aircraft was given clearance to make an RNP AR APCH. At 01:23 hrs when the aircraft reported Dovan, Kathmandu Approach instructed the flight crew to contact Kathmandu Tower. Kathmandu Tower issued a landing clearance at 01:24 hrs and provided wind information of 100° at 03 knots. At 01:27 hrs the aircraft carried out a missed approach due to lack of visual reference. The aircraft was given clearance to proceed to RATAN hold via MANRI climbing to 10500 feet as per the missed approach procedure. During the missed approach the aircraft was instructed to contact Kathmandu Approach. At 01:43 hrs the aircraft requested the latest visibility to which Kathmandu Approach provided visibility 3000 m and Kathmandu Tower observation of 1000 meters towards the south east and few clouds at 1000 ft, SCT 2000 ft and BKN 10,000 feet. When the flight crew reported their intention to continue approach at 01:44 hrs, Kathmandu Approach cleared the aircraft for RNAV RNP APCH runway 02 and instructed to report RATAN. The aircraft reported crossing 6700 ft at 01:55 hrs to Kathmandu Tower. Kathmandu Tower cleared the aircraft to land and provided wind information of 160° at 04 kts. At 01:57 hrs Kathmandu Tower asked the aircraft if the runway was insight. The aircraft responded that they were not able to see the runway but were continuing the approach. The aircraft was at 880 ft AGL at that time. At 783 ft AGL the aircraft asked Kathmandu Tower if the approach lights were on. Kathmandu Tower informed the aircraft that the approach lights were on at full intensity. The auto-pilots remained coupled to the aircraft until 14 ft AGL, when it was disconnected, a flare was attempted. The maximum vertical acceleration recorded on the flight data recorder was approximately 2.7 G. The aircraft pitch at touchdown was 1.8 degree nose up up which is lower than a normal flare attitude for other landings. From physical evidence recorded on the runway and the GPS latitude and longitude coordinate data the aircraft touched down to the left of the runway centerline with the left hand main gear off the paved runway surface. The aircraft crossed taxiways E and D and came to a stop on the grass area between taxiway D and C with the heading of the aircraft on rest position being 345 degrees (North North West) and the position of the aircraft on rest position was at N 27° 41' 46", E 85° 21'29" At 02:00 hrs Kathmandu Tower asked if the aircraft had landed. The aircraft requested medical and fire assistance reporting its position at the end of the runway. At 02:03 hrs the aircraft requested for bridge and stairs to open the door and vacate passengers instead of evacuation. The fire and rescue team opened the left cabin door and requested the cabin attendant as well as to pilot through Kathmandu Tower to deploy the evacuation slides. At 02:10 hrs evacuation signal was given to disembark the passengers. All passengers were evacuated safely and later, the aircraft was declared as damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
The probable cause of this accident is the decision of the flight crew to continue approach and landing below the minima with inadequate visual reference and not to perform a missed approach in accordance to the published approach procedure. Other contributing factors of the accident are probable fixation of the flight crew to land at Kathmandu, and the deterioration of weather conditions that resulted in fog over the airport reducing the visibility below the required minima. The following findings were reported:
- On March 2, 2015 i.e. two days before the accident, the crews of the flight to Kathmandu reported through RNP AR MONITORING FORM that all the NAV. accuracy and deviation parameter were perfectly correct at MINIMUM but the real aircraft position was high (PAPI 4 whites) and left offset,
- The airlines as well as crews were unaware of the fact that wrong threshold coordinates were uploaded on FMGS NAV data base of the aircraft,
- The flight crew was unable to get ATIS information on the published frequency because ATIS was not operating. ATIS status was also not included in the Daily Facilities Status check list reporting form of TIA Kathmandu,
- Turkish Airlines Safety Department advised to change the scheduled arrival time at Kathmandu Airport,
- It was the first flight of the Captain to Kathmandu airport and third flight but first RNAV (RNP) approach of the Copilot,
- Both approaches were flown with the auto-pilots coupled,
- Crew comments on the CVR during approach could be an indication that they (crews) were tempted to continue to descend below the decision height despite lack of adequate visual reference condition contrary to State published Standard Instrument Arrival and company Standard Operating procedures with the expectation of getting visual contact with the ground,
- The flight crew were not visual with the runway or approach light at MDA,
- The MET Office did not disseminate SPECI representing deterioration in visibility according to Annex 3,
- The Approach Control and the Kathmandu Tower did not update the aircraft with its observation representing a sudden deterioration in visibility condition due to moving fog,
- The Air Traffic Control Officers are not provided with refresher training at regular interval,
- CAAN did not take into account for the AIRAC cycle 04-2015 from 05 Feb 2015 to 04 March 2015 while cancelling AIP supplement,
- The auto-pilots remained coupled to the aircraft until 14ft AGL when it was disconnected and a flare was attempted,
- The crews were not fully following the standard procedure of KTM RNAV (RNP) Approach and company Standard Operating procedures.
Final Report:

Crash of a Dornier DO228-202 in Kathmandu: 19 killed

Date & Time: Sep 28, 2012 at 0618 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AHA
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Kathmandu - Lukla
MSN:
8123
YOM:
1987
Flight number:
SIT601
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
19
Captain / Total flying hours:
8308
Captain / Total hours on type:
7112.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
772
Copilot / Total hours on type:
519
Circumstances:
Less than two minutes after take off from runway 20, during initial climb, crew informed ATC he encountered a bird strike and that an engine failed. Captain tried to return to Kathmandu Airport but aircraft turn left, stalled and crashed in flames near Manohara River, 420 meters from the end of runway 20. All 19 occupants, among them 7 British and 5 Chinese citizens, were killed.
Probable cause:
During level flight phase of the aircraft, the drag on the aircraft was greater than the power available and the aircraft decelerated. That resulted in excessive drag in such critical phase of ascent lowering the required thrust. The investigation was unable to determine the reason for the reduced thrust.
- The flight crew did not maintain the airspeed above the stall speed and there was insufficient height available to recover when the aircraft departed controlled flight.
Contributory factors:
- The flight crew did not maintain V2 during the climb and so the power required to maintain the level flight was greater than it would otherwise have been,
- The flight crew did not maintain the runway centerline which removed the option of landing the aircraft on the runway remaining.
No bird remains were found inside the engines, there was evidence however that the Black Kite had been struck by the right hand propeller.
The NAAIC concluded the analysis: "The investigation was unable to determine the cause of the thrust reduction."

Source: AvHerald

Crash of a Beechcraft 1900D in Kathmandu: 19 killed

Date & Time: Sep 25, 2011 at 0731 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AEK
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Katmandu - Katmandu
MSN:
UE-295
YOM:
1997
Flight number:
BHA103
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
19
Copilot / Total hours on type:
18
Circumstances:
Aircraft was performing a special flight with tourists above Himalayan mountains and especially a tour of the Everest in early morning. While returning to Kathmandu-Tribhuvan Airport, while descending to join the runway 02 glide, the twin engine aircraft hit tree tops, stalled and crashed in a wooded area located near the village of Bishanku Narayan, some 6,7 km from runway threshold. On scene, SAR evacuated a passenger seriously injured while all 18 other occupants were killed, but few hours later, the only survivor died from his injuries. The 16 tourists were respectively 10 Indians, 2 US, 1 Japanese and 3 Nepalese.
Probable cause:
The Accident Investigation Commission assigned by Nepal's Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation have submitted their report to the Ministry. The investigators said in a media briefing, that human factors, mainly fatigue by the captain of the flight, led to the crash. The aircraft was flown by the first officer and was on approach to Kathmandu at 5000 feet MSL instead of 6000 feet MSL as required, when it entered a cloud. While inside the cloud in low visibility the aircraft descended, hit tree tops and broke up.
The captain had flown another aircraft the previous day and had been assigned to the accident flight on short notice in the morning of the accident day, but did not have sufficient rest. The commission analysed that due to the resulting fatigue the captain assigned pilot flying duties to the first officer although she wasn't yet ready to cope with the task in demanding conditions. The newly assigned first officer had only 18 hours experience on the aircraft type.
The mountain view round trip had to turn back about midway due to weather conditions. While on a visual approach to Kathmandu at 5000 instead of 6000 feet MSL the aircraft entered a cloud and started to descend until impact with tree tops.
The crew did not follow standard operating procedures, that amongst other details required the aircraft to fly at or above 6000 feet MSL in the accident area, the interaction between the crew members did not follow standard operating procedures, for example the captain distracted the first officer with frequent advice instead of explaining the/adhering to procedures.
The commission said as result of the investigation they released a safety recommendation requiring all operators to install Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems (TAWS) in addition to eight other safety recommendations regarding pilot training, installation of visual aids, safety audit and fleet policies.

Source: AvHerald

Crash of a Dornier DO228 near Kathmandu: 14 killed

Date & Time: Aug 24, 2010 at 0725 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AHE
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Kathmandu - Lukla
MSN:
7032
YOM:
1985
Flight number:
AG101
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
12
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
14
Circumstances:
On approach to Lukla, crew divert to Simara due to bad weather conditions. At Simara, crew decided to return to Kathmandu due to weather deterioration. On descent to Kathmandu, while approaching runway 02, a generator failed and aircraft crashed in an open field some 30 km southeast of Tribhuvan Airport. All 14 occupants were killed, among them four Americans, one British and one Japanese.
Probable cause:
Generator failure on approach for undetermined reason.

Crash of a Boeing 727-200 in Kathmandu: 5 killed

Date & Time: Jul 7, 1999 at 1951 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
VT-LCI
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Katmandou-New Delhi-Sharjah
MSN:
22168
YOM:
1981
Flight number:
LCI8533
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
5
Aircraft flight hours:
43000
Aircraft flight cycles:
25000

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter in Kathmandu: 2 killed

Date & Time: Jan 17, 1995 at 1359 LT
Operator:
Registration:
9N-ABI
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Katmandou-Rumjatar
MSN:
392
YOM:
1973
Flight number:
RA133
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
21
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
2