Crash of a De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter 300 in Arghakhachi: 18 killed

Date & Time: Feb 16, 2014 at 1315 LT
Operator:
Registration:
9N-ABB
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Pokhara – Jumla
MSN:
302
YOM:
1971
Flight number:
RNA183
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
15
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
18
Captain / Total flying hours:
8373
Captain / Total hours on type:
8131.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
365
Circumstances:
Aircraft left Pokhara at 1243LT bound for Jumla. Thirty minutes later, crew made his last radio contact and the aircraft crashed about two minutes later in an uninhabited area located near Arghakhanchi, some 7 km northwest of Sandhikharka. Weather conditions at the time of the accident were marginal with an estimated visibility of 5 km but SAR operations were hampered. Local residents reported a burning object and the crew of an helicopter spotted the wreckage in a wooded area in the afternoon. Rescuers arrived on site in the morning of the next day, confirming that all 18 occupants have been killed, among them 17 Nepalese and one Danish according to the pax list provided by the authorities. At the time of the accident, crew encountered icing conditions with freezing rain in the region of the crash. The aircraft disintegrated on impact and debris were found on a large zone. DHC-6 s/n 302 (9N-ABB) crashed already on 05JUL1992 in Jumla.
Probable cause:
According to the investigators, the PIC lost situation awareness while cruising in IMC, causing the aircraft to collide with terrain.
The following factors were considered as contributory:
Deteriorated weather associated with western disturbance, unstable in nature and embedded CB,
Inappropriate and insufficient crew coordination while changing course of action.

Crash of a Dornier DO228-202K in Simikot

Date & Time: Jun 1, 2013 at 0714 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AHB
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Nepālganj - Simikot
MSN:
8169
YOM:
1989
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
Twin engine aircraft was performing a charter flight from Nepālganj to Simikot with two crew and five passengers on board. On approach to Simikot, ground fog and low visibility forced the crew to proceed with a go around. A second and a third attempt to land were also abandoned. Captain elected to land and descended through runway 28 but aircraft hit the ground short of runway threshold, lost its left main gear and came to rest on the right side of the runway with its left wing broken in two. The aircraft also suffered severe damage to its belly.

Crash of a Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in Simikot

Date & Time: May 27, 2013 at 1042 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AJU
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Nepalganj - Simikot
MSN:
208B-0770
YOM:
1999
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
9
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
After landing at Simikot Airport, the right tyre burst. Aircraft went out of control and veered off to the right before contacting a concrete drainage ditch. Righ main gear and nose were sheared off. While all 11 occupants were unhurt, aircraft was damaged beyond repair.

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-6 Twin 300 Otter in Jomsom

Date & Time: May 16, 2013 at 0833 LT
Operator:
Registration:
9N-ABO
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Pokhara - Jomsom
MSN:
0638
YOM:
1979
Flight number:
RNA555
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
18
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
8451
Captain / Total hours on type:
8131.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1396
Copilot / Total hours on type:
1202
Circumstances:
Following an uneventful and short flight from Pokhara, crew was authorized to land on runway 24 with a wind component between 8 and 12 knots. For unknown reasons, captain preferred to land on runway 06 with a tailwind component which exceeded the company’s standard operating procedure. Flare was long and aircraft landed 776 feet past the runway 06 threshold (runway 06 is 2,424 long). 194 feet after touch down, aircraft left runway to the right, went through a grassy area and rolled for 705 feet before coming again onto runway. Captain decided to perform a go around and increased the engine power but aircraft did not lift off due to insufficient speed. It overrun, went down an embankment and eventually came to rest, broken in two, in the bank of the Kaligandaki River. All occupants were injured, six of them seriously.
Probable cause:
The Accident Investigation Commission has determined the most probable cause of the accident was the inappropriate conduct of STOL procedure and landing technique carried out by the PIC, during landing phase and an endeavor to carry out take off again with no sufficient airspeed, no required lifting force and non availability of required runway length to roll. Contributory factors to the occurrence is the absence of proper CRM in terms of communication, coordination and briefing in between crew members on intention and action being taken by PIC, during pre and post landing phase.

Crash of a Dornier DO228-202 in Kathmandu: 19 killed

Date & Time: Sep 28, 2012 at 0618 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AHA
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Kathmandu - Lukla
MSN:
8123
YOM:
1987
Flight number:
SIT601
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
19
Captain / Total flying hours:
8308
Captain / Total hours on type:
7112.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
772
Copilot / Total hours on type:
519
Circumstances:
Less than two minutes after take off from runway 20, during initial climb, crew informed ATC he encountered a bird strike and that an engine failed. Captain tried to return to Kathmandu Airport but aircraft turn left, stalled and crashed in flames near Manohara River, 420 meters from the end of runway 20. All 19 occupants, among them 7 British and 5 Chinese citizens, were killed.
Probable cause:
During level flight phase of the aircraft, the drag on the aircraft was greater than the power available and the aircraft decelerated. That resulted in excessive drag in such critical phase of ascent lowering the required thrust. The investigation was unable to determine the reason for the reduced thrust.
- The flight crew did not maintain the airspeed above the stall speed and there was insufficient height available to recover when the aircraft departed controlled flight.
Contributory factors:
- The flight crew did not maintain V2 during the climb and so the power required to maintain the level flight was greater than it would otherwise have been,
- The flight crew did not maintain the runway centerline which removed the option of landing the aircraft on the runway remaining.
No bird remains were found inside the engines, there was evidence however that the Black Kite had been struck by the right hand propeller.
The NAAIC concluded the analysis: "The investigation was unable to determine the cause of the thrust reduction."

Source: AvHerald

Crash of a Dornier DO228-212 in Jomsom: 15 killed

Date & Time: May 14, 2012 at 0945 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AIG
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Pokhara - Jomsom
MSN:
8216
YOM:
1997
Flight number:
AG-CHT
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
18
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
15
Captain / Total flying hours:
5776
Captain / Total hours on type:
596.00
Circumstances:
On final approach to runway 06 at Jomsom Airport, crew lowered the gear when they noticed a technical problem. While approaching the runway threshold, captain decided to abort the landing procedure and to divert to Pokhara. He executed a sharp U-turn to the left at a speed of 73 knots when the left wing hit a rocky hill located 270 meters from runway 24 threshold. Aircraft stalled and crashed on the slope of the hill and was destroyed by impact forces. The stewardess and five passengers were seriously injured while all 15 other occupants, among them both pilots, were killed.
Probable cause:
The captain took the decision to make a sharp turn to the left at 73 knots without considering the turn radial and the rising terrain, which resulted in a continuous stall warning during the remaining 12 seconds of flight. The left hand wing of the aircraft struck a rock and the aircraft disintegrated. Thus, the decision of the captain to initiate a turn to the left at this stage of the flight was against all published procedures. The panel stated the commander was a senior flight instructor employed by Civil Aviation Authority Nepal.

Crash of a Britten-Norman BN-2T Islander in Dhorpatan: 6 killed

Date & Time: Oct 18, 2011 at 1906 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
RAN-49
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Nepalganj - Katmandou
MSN:
2191
YOM:
1988
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
1
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
5
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
6
Circumstances:
Aircraft was performing an ambulance flight from Nepalganj to the capital city Kathmandu with a patient, one accompanist, two doctors, a nurse and a pilot. It crashed in unknown circumstances near Dhorpatan, killing all six occupants.

Crash of a Beechcraft 1900D in Kathmandu: 19 killed

Date & Time: Sep 25, 2011 at 0731 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AEK
Survivors:
No
Schedule:
Katmandu - Katmandu
MSN:
UE-295
YOM:
1997
Flight number:
BHA103
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
16
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
19
Copilot / Total hours on type:
18
Circumstances:
Aircraft was performing a special flight with tourists above Himalayan mountains and especially a tour of the Everest in early morning. While returning to Kathmandu-Tribhuvan Airport, while descending to join the runway 02 glide, the twin engine aircraft hit tree tops, stalled and crashed in a wooded area located near the village of Bishanku Narayan, some 6,7 km from runway threshold. On scene, SAR evacuated a passenger seriously injured while all 18 other occupants were killed, but few hours later, the only survivor died from his injuries. The 16 tourists were respectively 10 Indians, 2 US, 1 Japanese and 3 Nepalese.
Probable cause:
The Accident Investigation Commission assigned by Nepal's Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation have submitted their report to the Ministry. The investigators said in a media briefing, that human factors, mainly fatigue by the captain of the flight, led to the crash. The aircraft was flown by the first officer and was on approach to Kathmandu at 5000 feet MSL instead of 6000 feet MSL as required, when it entered a cloud. While inside the cloud in low visibility the aircraft descended, hit tree tops and broke up.
The captain had flown another aircraft the previous day and had been assigned to the accident flight on short notice in the morning of the accident day, but did not have sufficient rest. The commission analysed that due to the resulting fatigue the captain assigned pilot flying duties to the first officer although she wasn't yet ready to cope with the task in demanding conditions. The newly assigned first officer had only 18 hours experience on the aircraft type.
The mountain view round trip had to turn back about midway due to weather conditions. While on a visual approach to Kathmandu at 5000 instead of 6000 feet MSL the aircraft entered a cloud and started to descend until impact with tree tops.
The crew did not follow standard operating procedures, that amongst other details required the aircraft to fly at or above 6000 feet MSL in the accident area, the interaction between the crew members did not follow standard operating procedures, for example the captain distracted the first officer with frequent advice instead of explaining the/adhering to procedures.
The commission said as result of the investigation they released a safety recommendation requiring all operators to install Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems (TAWS) in addition to eight other safety recommendations regarding pilot training, installation of visual aids, safety audit and fleet policies.

Source: AvHerald

Crash of a De Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter in Okhaldhunga: 22 killed

Date & Time: Dec 15, 2010 at 1530 LT
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AFX
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Lamidanda - Kathmandou
MSN:
806
YOM:
1984
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
19
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
22
Captain / Total flying hours:
6700
Captain / Total hours on type:
5000.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1100
Copilot / Total hours on type:
341
Circumstances:
Aircraft left Lamidanda at 1508LT bound to Kathmandu. Shortly after departure, crew was authorized to climb to 10,500 feet but ATC ask them to maintain 8,500 feet due to heavy traffic. Captain disagreed with this ATC instruction and continued to climb. Copilot asked the captain to accept the ATC proposal so finally, the captain authorized the copilot (who was the pilot in command) to descend to 8,500 feet despite the fact it was risky due to the mountainous terrain. Few minutes later, aircraft went trough the clouds when the right wing hit the ground. Aircraft crashed and was totally destroyed by impact forces. SAR were suspended due to the night and the first rescuers arrived on the scene the day after in early morning. On site, on the Palunge hill located near Okhaldhunga, rescuers did not find any survivor among the 22 occupants. IMC conditions prevailed at the time of the accident due to low visibility (cloudy conditions).
Probable cause:
The cause of the accident was the unwise decision taken by the crew to descend without taking the harsh mountain terrain into consideration.

Crash of a Dornier DO228 near Kathmandu: 14 killed

Date & Time: Aug 24, 2010 at 0725 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
9N-AHE
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Kathmandu - Lukla
MSN:
7032
YOM:
1985
Flight number:
AG101
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
2
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
12
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
14
Circumstances:
On approach to Lukla, crew divert to Simara due to bad weather conditions. At Simara, crew decided to return to Kathmandu due to weather deterioration. On descent to Kathmandu, while approaching runway 02, a generator failed and aircraft crashed in an open field some 30 km southeast of Tribhuvan Airport. All 14 occupants were killed, among them four Americans, one British and one Japanese.
Probable cause:
Generator failure on approach for undetermined reason.