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Crash of an Embraer EMB-120ER Brasília in Lagos: 16 killed

Date & Time: Oct 3, 2013 at 0932 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BJY
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos - Akure
MSN:
120174
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
SCD361
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
13
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
16
Circumstances:
The crew discussed some concerns about the aircraft prior to departure but at this time we are not prepared to elaborate on those concerns as there remains a lot of work to complete on the CVR analysis in order to determine the specific nature of the crew’s concerns. Associated 361 was cleared for take-off on runway one eight left at Lagos international airport. The wind was calm and weather is not considered a factor in this accident. Approximately 4 seconds after engine power was advanced to commence the take-off roll, the crew received an automated warning from the onboard computer voice which consisted of three chimes followed by “Take-off Flaps…Take-off Flaps”. This is a configuration warning that suggests that the flaps were not in the correct position for take-off and there is some evidence that the crew may have chosen not to use flaps for the take-off. The warning did not appear to come as any surprise to the crew and they continued normally with the take-off. This warning continues throughout the take-off roll. As we are in the process of verifying the accuracy of the flight data, we have not yet been able to confirm the actual flap setting however we expect to determine this in the fullness of time. It was determined from the CVR that the pilot flying was the Captain and the pilot monitoring and assisting was the First Officer. The ‘set power‘ call was made by the Captain and the ‘power is set’ call was confirmed by the First Officer as expected in normal operations. Approximately 3 seconds after the ‘power is set’ call, the First Officer noted that the aircraft was moving slowly. Approximately 7 seconds after the ‘power is set’ call, the internal Aircraft Voice warning system could be heard stating ‘Take off Flaps, Auto Feather’. Auto feather refers to the pitch of the propeller blades. In the feather position, the propeller does not produce any thrust. The FDR contains several engine related parameters which the AIB is studying. At this time, we can state that the Right engine appears to be producing considerably less thrust than the Left engine. The left engine appeared to be working normally. The aircraft automated voice continued to repeat ‘Take-off Flaps, Auto Feather’. The physical examination of the wreckage revealed that the right engine propeller was in the feather position and the engine fire handle was pulled/activated. The standard ‘eighty knots’ call was made by the First Officer. The first evidence that the crew indicated that there was a problem with the take-off roll was immediately following the ‘eighty knots’ call. The First Officer asked if the take- off should be aborted approximately 12 seconds after the ‘eighty knots’ callout. Our investigation team estimates the airspeed to be approximately 95 knots. Airspeed was one of the parameters that, while working in the cockpit, appeared not to be working on the Flight Data Recorder. We were able to estimate the speed based on the radar data that we synchronized to the FDR and CVR but it is very approximate because of this. In response to the First Officer’s question to abort, the Captain indicated that they should continue and they continued the take-off roll. The crew did not make a ‘V1’ call or a Vr’ call. V1 is the speed at which a decision to abort or continue a take-off is made. Vr is the speed at which it is planned to rotate the aircraft. Normally the non-flying pilot calls both the V1 and the Vr speeds. When Vr is called the flying pilot pulls back on the control column and the aircraft is rotated (pitched up) to climb away from the runway. During the rotation, the First Officer stated ‘gently’, which we believe reflects concern that the aircraft is not performing normally and therefore needs to be rotated very gently so as not to aerodynamically stall the aircraft. The First Officer indicated that the aircraft was not climbing and advised the Captain who was flying not to stall the aircraft. Higher climb angles can cause an aerodynamic stall. If the aircraft is not producing enough overall thrust, it is difficult or impossible to climb without the risk of an aerodynamic stall. Immediately after lift-off, the aircraft slowly veered off the runway heading to the right and was not climbing properly. This aircraft behavior appears to have resulted in the Air Traffic Controller asking Flight 361 if operation was normal. Flight 361 never responded. Less than 10 seconds after rotation of the aircraft to climb away from the runway, the stall warning sounded in the cockpit and continued to the end of therecording. The flight data shows characteristics consistent with an aerodynamic stall. 31 seconds after the stall warning was heard, the aircraft impacted the ground in a nose down near 90 degree right bank.

The investigation is focusing on the following:
1) Mechanical and electronic engine control issues related to the Right engine and Right engine propeller systems.
2) Aural warnings related to auto-feather and the flap settings required fortakeoff.
3) Take-off configuration issues with respect to flap settings.
4) Crew decision making and training with respect to proceeding with the flight despite concerns regarding the aircraft’s suitability for flight.
5) When and how the number 2 engine fire handle was pulled.
6) Standard operating procedures with respect to continuing the take-off roll despite continuous automated voice warnings of both ‘take-off flaps’ and
‘auto feather’ when there was ample time to abort the take-off.
7) The airline management’s safety culture fostered throughout the airline. We are in the process of developing a comprehensive computer reconstruction of the flight which will help our team understand the sequence of events and will ultimately help us communicate our findings to the aviation community and the general public.

Crash of a McDonnell Douglas MD-83 in Lagos: 163 killed

Date & Time: Jun 3, 2012 at 1545 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-RAM
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Abuja - Lagos
MSN:
53019/1783
YOM:
1990
Flight number:
DAV992
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
6
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
147
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
163
Captain / Total flying hours:
18116
Captain / Total hours on type:
7461.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
1143
Copilot / Total hours on type:
808
Aircraft flight hours:
60846
Aircraft flight cycles:
35219
Circumstances:
Aircraft was performing flight DAV992 (9J992) from Abuja to Lagos. Following an uneventful flight, crew started the descent and intercepted the glide for runway 18R. Aircraft descended successively from 26,000 feet to 18,100 and 7,700 feet and was configured for landing with gear down, slats and flaps down also. While correctly aligned on the glide and approaching in good weather conditions, captain sent a brief message and declared an emergency, informing ATC that both engines failed. During the next 25 seconds, pilots tried to restart the engines but without success. Aircraft eventually stalled and crashed in the suburb of Iju, some 10,7 km short of runway 18R. On ground, aircraft destroyed several buildings and aircraft was also destroyed by impact forces and post impact fire. All 153 occupants and 10 people on the ground were killed. Several people on the ground were injured as well. Worst aircraft crash in Nigeria since 1973.
Probable cause:
Dual engine failure on approach. There was sufficient fuel in tanks and analysis confirmed the fuel was not contaminated.
Still under investigation by the Nigerian Accident Investigation Board (AIB Nigeria).

Crash of a Boeing 727-221F in Accra: 12 killed

Date & Time: Jun 2, 2012 at 1910 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BJN
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos - Accra
MSN:
22540/1796
YOM:
1982
Flight number:
AJK111
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
4
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
0
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
12
Circumstances:
Crew was performing a cargo flight (AJK111) from Lagos to Accra on behalf of the DHL Group. Approach was completed in marginal weather conditions by night and heavy rain falls. After landing on runway 21, aircraft overrun, went trough a fence and crossed the Giffard Avenue on which it hit a minivan, a taxi and cyclist before coming to rest. As all four crew were unhurt, 12 people on the ground were killed (10 in the minivan, the passenger of a taxi and the cyclist). Aircraft was damaged beyond repair as all gear collapsed, both wings were damaged by impact forces and the tail partially separated. At the time of the accident, weather conditions were as follow: visibility 5 km, thunderstorm's activity with rain, broken clouds at 1'000 feet and few CB's above the terrain at 3'000 feet. It seems that aircraft landed long and the touch down was about half down the wet runway, reducing the landing distance available. Also, the friction coefficient was low.

Crash of a Beechcraft 1900D in Nigeria: 3 killed

Date & Time: Mar 15, 2008 at 0815 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-JAH
Flight Phase:
Flight Type:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Lagos-Bebi
MSN:
UE-322
YOM:
1998
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
3
Circumstances:

The crew was performing a positionning flight from Lagos to Bebi to pick up a delegation of the Cross River's governement. During flight, the aircraft disappeared from radar screens and crashed near Besi village. All three crew members were killed. The debris were later found on August 30, 2008.

Crash of a Boeing 737-200 in Abuja: 97 killed

Date & Time: Oct 29, 2006 at 1130 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BFK
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Lagos - Abuja - Sokoto
MSN:
22891
YOM:
1983
Flight number:
ADK053
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
5
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
100
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
97
Aircraft flight hours:
56063
Aircraft flight cycles:
44088
Circumstances:
The aircraft was operating the flight ADK053 Lagos - Sokoto via Abuja with 110 people on board. Few passengers disembarked in Abuja. Shortly after takeoff from Abuja-Nnamdi Azikiwe airport, the 737 stalled, crashed and burst into flames in a corn field located 2 km from airport. 9 passengers were seriously injured while a woman on ground was killed. Weather conditions were described as worsering.

Crash of a Boeing 727-200 in Lagos

Date & Time: Sep 7, 2006 at 1305 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-DPF
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Abidjan - Accra - Lagos
MSN:
22644/1768
YOM:
1981
Flight number:
DHL110
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
3
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Captain / Total flying hours:
17295
Captain / Total hours on type:
7820.00
Copilot / Total flying hours:
2972
Copilot / Total hours on type:
2422
Aircraft flight hours:
52728
Aircraft flight cycles:
34063
Circumstances:
Crew was peforming a cargo flight from Abidjan to Lagos with an intermediate stop in Accra. On approach to Lagos, weather was poor with ceiling 100 feet above minimum, heavy rain falls, visibility 1,000 meters and winds from 080 degrees at 18 knots gusting 30 knots. Copilot was peforming the approach and landing and aircraft touch down at a speed of 167 knots (30 knots above Vref) and 1,427 metres after the runway threshold. Thrust reversers were deployed but captain realised he could not stop the aircraft within the remaining runway so he decided to abort and to started a go around procedure. Thrust reversers were briefly stowed and then re-deployed again. Aircraft overran at a speed of 80 knots, went through the localizer antenna, lost its nose gear and came to rest 400 metres past the runway end. All three occupants were uninjured while the aircraft was considered as damaged beyond repair.
Probable cause:
Decision of the crew to continue an unstabilised approach despite the prevailing adverse weather condition.
The following factors were considered as contributory:
Captain did not take over the control of the flight from the first officer in the known bad weather situation.
Crew resource management was inadequate.

Crash of a Boeing 737-200 in Lagos: 117 killed

Date & Time: Oct 22, 2005 at 2040 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
5N-BFN
Flight Phase:
Survivors:
No
Site:
Schedule:
Abidjan - Accra - Lagos - Abuja
MSN:
22734
YOM:
1981
Flight number:
BLV210
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
7
Crew fatalities:
Pax on board:
111
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
117
Aircraft flight hours:
55772
Aircraft flight cycles:
36266
Circumstances:
The aircraft departed Lagos-Murtala Muhammed airport at 2035LT for a flight to Abuja. Five minutes later, the aircraft lost height and crashed in a wooded area near Lisa, about 30 km north of Lagos. All 117 people on board were killed.

Crash of a Boeing 747-200 in Lagos

Date & Time: Nov 29, 2003 at 0235 LT
Type of aircraft:
Operator:
Registration:
ZS-OOS
Flight Type:
Survivors:
Yes
Schedule:
Bruxelles-Lagos-Johannesburg
MSN:
21190
YOM:
1975
Flight number:
HYC501
Location:
Country:
Region:
Crew on board:
9
Crew fatalities:
Pax fatalities:
Other fatalities:
Total fatalities:
0
Circumstances:
In night approach, the aircraft crashed on landing on runway 19R which was closed to traffic due to construction work. The crew did not check notams and the ATC gave a wrong information while he authorized the crew to land on this closed runway.